Malcolm Knowles and the Theory of Andragogy
In 1978, Malcolm Knowles, in Adult Learners: A Neglected Species, writes "Andragogy assumes that the point at which an individual achieves a self-concept of essential self-direction is the point at which he psychologically becomes adult." Knowles states, that at this moment, when the person becomes psychologically an adult, it is important for that person to be perceived as self directed, and when they are not perceived as such, a tension is experienced between the situation and their own concept of self, and the person typically responds with resistance. This is pertinent to education because the traditional structure within post-secondary education frequently does not allow for self direction.
Knowles assumes the following in the context of adult education:
Adapted from Atherton J S (2013) Learning and Teaching; Knowles' andragogy: an angle on adult learning [On-line: UK] retrieved 30 June 2016 from http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/knowlesa.htm
and Halpern, Rebecca1, email@example.com, and Chimene1 Tucker. “Leveraging Adult Learning Theory with Online Tutorials.” Reference Services Review 43.1 (2015): 112–124.
Please see Infed.org's comparison of Pedagogy to Andragogy here.
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