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Research Guides

Slavic and East European Resources

This guide includes annotated links to selected electronic resources, such as online library catalogues, archival guides, digital collections, dictionaries and encyclopedias, databases, e-journals, and search engines.


Reference Grammar Network through the Slavic and East European Language Research Center

Reference Grammar Network is a set of reference grammars designed for advanced-level language users at the Slavic and East European Language Research Centre at Duke University. The resource includes grammars of Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian, Czech, Macedonian, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Slovene and Ukrainian.


Albanian Dictionary List

This collection offers access to online dictionaries, allowing easy translation between Albanian and many other languages. Two types of Albanian dictionaries are available. Universal dictionaries interconnect Albanian translations with English definitions and translations in other languages in one complex database. Bilingual Albanian dictionaries connect Albanian with other languages.


Belarusian Dictionary

This is an online dictionary with tools to learn Belarusian, such as translation page and language lessons.


Croatian Old Dictionary

This is a web portal of the most important old Croatian dictionaries published from 1595 to 1756 in Rome and Venice and other places. More old Croatian dictionaries will be added to the portal. The cross search through all dictionaries is available.

Croatian Dictionary

This is an online dictionary of the Croatian language.

Czech Republic

Czech Dictionaries

This database provides access to the Handy Dictionary of the Czech Language (1935-1957) and the Catalogue of Lexical Archives (1911-1991) with an option to perform a combined search of both databases.

Dictionary of Czech Literature after 1945

This dictionary contains more than a thousand entries of the articles on Czech writers and literary journals published in the period 1945-2000. It is based on the Dictionary of Czech Writers (Institute for Czech Literature of the Czech Republic, 1995-1998) and the Dictionary of Czech Literary Journals, Periodicals and Anthologies.


Slovnik is an online dictionary provides users with possibility to translate from Czech into English, German, French, Italian, Spanish, Russian, and Latin and back.

Web Vokabulář

This resource offers online access to several dictionaries of the older and historical Czech for those interested in the history of the language. Currently, Web Vokabulář uses the following lexical resources: Little Old Czech Dictionary (MSS); Subject Headings Old Czech Dictionary (HesStčS); Dictionary of Old Czech by Jana Gebauer (GbSlov); Staročeský Dictionary, workbook 1-26 (STCS); Glossary of Old Czech by Francis Šimka (ŠimekSlov); Index Dictionary of Old Czech Personal Names by Jan Svoboda (IndexSvob); and the Electronic Dictionary of Old Czech (ESSC).


Estonian Dictionary

This is a collection of online Estonian-English dictionaries.


Finnish Dictionaries

This is a collection of online Finnish-English dictionaries.

Shorter Finnish Dictionary (with etymologies)

This is a Finnish etymological dictionary, presented as text on a single web page. The web page was archived in 2011.


Macedonian Dictionary

The Digital Macedonian Dictionary was compiled using the following literature: Dictionary of the Macedonian Language by Blaze Koneski, Volume 1-3, joy Kids, 1994; A Glossary of Terms in the Macedonian Language, Volume 1-4, published by the Institute for Macedonian Language "Krste Misirkov", 2003-2009; Grammar of the Macedonian Language by Blaže Koneski joy Kids, 1999; Orthographic dictionary of Macedonian Language by Kiril Koneski Prosvetno act, 1999.


Catalogue of Polish Dictionaries

The Catalogue of Polish Dictionaries comprises links to a variety of Polish language dictionaries as well as specialist dictionaries.

Dictionary of Old-Polish

Dictionary of Old-Polish provides readers with more than 3,473 definitions of old-Polish terms.

Dictionary of the Polish Language [Slownik jezyka polskiego PWN]

Polish Scientific Publishers is one of the most respected reference institutions in Poland. The Dictionary of the Polish Language is the standard work of its kind for the Polish language. The free version of the dictionary contains more than 100,000 terms. A free plug-in for Mozilla and Firefox is also available.



DEX online - Dictionary of the Romanian Language

The website gives access to several free, online dictionaries of the Romanian language. Currently the databases contain more than 546.983 lexical terms.

Russia (Federation)

Encyclopedia Brokgaus

The famous encyclopedia of Brokgaus F. A and Efron I.A 1890-1916 is fully accessible online. It includes 118 447 entries and 6000 pictures. In Russian.

World of Dictionaries

A collection of 54 digitized Russian dictionaries and encyclopedias in different fields and of 51 digitized translation dictionaries.


A collection of digitized dictionaries and encyclopedias in various fields, such as languages, philosophy, finance, bible studies, history, and mythology. Included in the collection are such sizable works as Dal’s Dictionary, Ozhegov’s Dictionary, and others.

Russian Orthographic Dictionary

This is an orthographic dictionary of the Russian language.


Modern Slovak Writers

This index page provides links to brief biographies of Slovak writers.

Slovak Dictionaries

A collection of 4 types of dictionaries: translation dictionaries from Slovak to English, German, French, Spanish, Magyar, Italian, and Russian languages, orthographic dictionaries, a dictionary of synonyms, and a dictionary of foreign words.


Slovene Literary Language Dictionary

An online edition of the Slovenian Language Dictionary (Ljubljana: Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Scientific Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Institute for Slovenian language Fran Ramovš, 2000).


Encyclopedia of Ukraine

Once completed, the Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine (IEU) will be the most comprehensive source of information in English on Ukraine, its history, people, geography, society, economy, and cultural heritage. It is based on the revised and updated contents of the five-volume Encyclopedia of Ukraine (University of Toronto Press, 1984-93).


This is a collection of Ukrainian online dictionaries. The dictionaries cover a wide variety of fields, such as philosophy, accounting, languages, and others. A cross-dictionary search option is available.

Ukrainian dictionaries

Ukrainian linguistic portal offers for its users several electronic dictionaries, namely frequency dictionary of Ukrainian, semantic dictionary of Ukrainian, thesaurus of computer terms in Ukrainian, four language (English, German, Russian, and Ukrainian) dictionary of scientific terms, etc.