Boolean logic is the fancy language databases use to search. Boolean operators connect your keywords together.
The three basic boolean operators are: AND, OR, and NOT.
("molecular pharming" OR "molecular farming" OR biopharm*) AND (plant* OR crop*) AND (vaccin* OR immuniz*)
AND links together distinct concepts in your topic. It tells the database that all the search terms must be present in the results.
For example: cloning AND ethics AND humans would bring in results like the diagram below.
OR links together related concepts or synonyms. This tells the database that any or all search terms can be present in the results.
For example: you might be interested in "molecular pharming" OR "molecular farming" OR biopharming
NOT is used to exclude certain words or phrases from a search.
For example: you might want to search for articles on children NOT adolescents.
*Created by McMaster Libraries
Try the following tricks to get the most out of your keyword searches:
" " Quotation marks tell the database to search two or more words as a phrase, i.e. side-by-side in that exact word order.
* Asterisks are used for truncation, which tells the database to search for any variant word endings on a term.
? Wildcards are used to replace 0-1 characters within a word and are useful for catching spelling variations.
Note that different databases may use different symbols for these functions, so it's important to always check the requirements for your specific database. If you need help, you can contact the library for assistance.
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