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Research Guides

HIS419: Canada By Treaty: Alliances, Title Transfers and Land Claims

Key Maps

The two Treaty Maps below may be downloaded here and used without permission for non-profit and educational purposes, including other websites. The Credit Line should read: Map produced by GIS and Cartography Office, Department of Geography, University of Toronto for the exhibit Canada By Treaty: Negotiating Histories, co-curated by  Heidi Bohaker, James Bird and Laurie Bertram. ©2017. Commercial/for profit users please contact Professor Bohaker at for permission.


GIS Data

GeoGratis Aboriginal Lands - Geospatial information sets for each province and territory produced by Natural Resources Canada. These datasets include treaty territories and indigenous lands for every province and territory in Canada. These maps can be used free of charge for research purposes.

Historic First Nations Treaty Data (1736 – 1930) - An ArcGIS dataset that include treaties negotiated between approximately and 1930, excluding the Douglas Treaties. Major treaties include: Peace and Friendship Treaties 1725 - 1779, Upper Canada Treaties 1764 - 1836, Province of Canada Treaties 1850 - 1862, Numbered Treaties 1867 - 1930, and Williams Treaties 1923.

First Nations Settled and Unsettled Land Claims in Canada (2013) - An ArcGIS dataset that depicts all of the unsettled land claims in Canada as of 2013, created by the Conservation Biology Institute. The data is taken from Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada.

Pan-Inuit Trails - This Atlas focuses on historical written evidence of Inuit presence in most of the Canadian Arctic. It contains a selection of material obtained from hundreds of published and unpublished documents produced by explorers, ethnographers and other visitors who were in contact with Inuit during the early contact period or shortly before Inuit moved to permanent settlements.