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Research Guides

HIS419: Canada By Treaty: Alliances, Title Transfers and Land Claims

With Respect

Original plan of the Toronto Purchase, 1787-1805. Manuscript, colour; mounted on linen.
42.5 x 27 cm, 1911. The plan is part of the J. Ross Robertson Collection of maps.

We wish to acknowledge this land on which the University of Toronto operates. For thousands of years it has been the traditional land of the Huron-Wendat, the Seneca, and most recently, the Mississaugas of the Credit River. Today, this meeting place is still the home to many Indigenous people from across Turtle Island and we are grateful to have the opportunity to work on this land. 

University of Toronto Governing Council

Canada by Treaty: Negotiating Histories

Image of Canada by Treaty Exhibit at Hart House

Image credit: Diana Tyszko

Aboriginal and Treaty Rights Information System (ATRIS)

Finding the original treaty text, to 1923

The process for locating the text of your treaty or settlement agreement will differ depending on the time period it was created. Further, older documents may be available in more than one format, scanned images and transcriptions. 

Specific Claims

Look at the First Nations' web sites for documents, background, and current issues. 

Government Publications

Grey Literature is literature published outside of the regular commercial publishing industry and can include reports, working papers, government documents, white papers and evaluations. Grey literature may include valuable and relevant information not found in scholarly books and articles, while generally considered reliable information. 


Note: the Google custom search for Canadian Government information was created by Carleton University. It covers federal, provincial and municipal levels of government.

Texts of treaties or agreements relating to specific or comprehensive claims, as well as supporting documentation, may be found through the following sources. At the end of this list, you will find guides to further research in Canadian government publications.  

United States Sources


Guide created by Sara McDowell and Desmond Wong, 2016. 

Citing Treaties