Skip to Main Content

Virtual Reality in the Classroom

A guide to using the Virtual Reality resources available at OISE Library.

Citing Photos and Videos

The two common citation styles used in the Education discipline are APA and MLA. However, your professor may have a different preference as to what information they expect in citations. 

When to cite:

  • any image or video you plan to use in a scholarly work (e.g. in print or from the web) should be cite

Visit this citation guide for more information. 

APA Citation Style

How to cite ONLINE VIDEOS:

Last Name, F.M. [Producer]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video File]. Retrieved from URL


[Google]. (2017, August 30). Chasing Totality: A Solar Eclipse VR Experience [Video File]. Retrieved from

How to cite ONLINE PHOTOS:

Photographer's Last name, First initial. (Date of composition - if unknown use n.d.). Title of work. Museum or collection, City. Retrieved date of access, from complete URL.


Moiseenko, D. & Sedov, S. (2017, March 17-28). Antarctica Biennale 360-degree Arial Panoramas., Antarctica. Retrieved Friday, September 8, 2017, from

MLA Citation Style

How to cite ONLINE VIDEOS:

Focused person, if needed. "Episode, if needed." Title of video, other contributors, version, number, publisher, publication date, URL.


Chasing Totality: A Solar Eclipse VR Experience. Google, August 30, 2017,

How to cite ONLINE PHOTOS:

Photographers' name. Title of work. Date of composition, URL.


Dmitry Moiseenko & Stas Sedov. Antarctica Biennale. March 17-18, 2017.


  • When creating a citation, provide the information you known and include “unknown” for any information that cannot be located
  • Cite the original source of images found on Google, rather than
  • Use a citation management tool like RefWorks or Zotero to manage your sources (View this comparison chart to find the best one for you)