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VIC106 Psychology and Society

Guides for select citation styles:

APA Citation Style:

The official guide called, Publication manual of the American Psychological Association: the Official guide to APA style is unfortunately not available online via the library at this time.
However, both the E.J. Pratt and Emmanuel College Libraries (as well as most U of T Libraries) have a print copy that should always be available in the reference section of the library

See this record for the call number and library locations.

The APA's website

...offers a good deal of information about citation and paper style, see the various topics at the bottom of this Style and Grammar guidelines page and more specifically this page of in-text citation guidelines.
See examples of reference list entries here.

MLA Handbook

For citation and overall MLA style guidelines, the current, 9th edition of the MLA guide is available online and in print at several U of T Libraries. These sections will be quite useful:

The Chicago Manual of Style

Consult the current,17th edition  of this guide for how to format your footnotes or endnotes and bibliography entries (you are not using author/date for this course). There is a lot of detailed information in this guide, but you can focus on the following sections for examples of formatting of notes and for bibliography entries: 

Chapter 14.23 for examples of notes and bibliography entries for various formats of sources (books, chapters in books, articles)
Chapter 14.233: Reference works consulted online (this would be for an entry in an encyclopedia, companion, guide or handbook that has no specific listed/named author)

Example of a note for an online reference work/source (*the second line would be indented/hanging indentation):

2. Benezit Dictionary of Artists, s.v. "Feito, Luis," accessed October 21, 2022. https://www-oxfordartonline-

Chapter 14.234: Citing individual reference entries by author (this means an entry in an encyclopedia, companion, guide etc. with a specific listed/named author)

Chapter 14.161: Books consulted online


A citation management tool available at no charge to students at the University of Toronto.
Many databases will export directly to Refworks. It can help keep track of your sources and can help create your bibliography (list of works cited) with a few clicks.
Please keep in mind that automatic citation generation tools do occasionally make mistakes. You should carefully check any bibliography generated by a citation tool/application (e.g., check all nouns that should start with capital letters have actually been capitalized, etc.)

Please visit this U of T Libraries Refworks page 

If you have never had a Refworks account, click on: "Log in to Proquest Refworks" 
Click on "Create account" and follow the steps to with your utoronto email address.