Skip to Main Content

LCT306 Culture and Media (Sound Studies) winter 2024

Guides for select citation styles:

MLA Handbook
For citation and overall MLA style guidelines, the current 9th edition of the MLA guide is  available online and in print at several U of T Libraries. 
These sections will be quite useful:

6.1–6.2: In-Text Citations: Overview

Citation Examples (Appendix 2)

6.31–6.77: Quoting and Paraphrasing Sources

The Chicago Manual of Style

Consult the current,17th edition  of this guide for how to format your footnotes or endnotes and bibliography entries (you are not using author/date for this course). There is a lot of detailed information in this guide, but you can focus on the following sections for examples of formatting of notes and for bibliography entries: 

Chapter 14.23 for examples of notes and bibliography entries for various formats of sources (books, chapters in books, articles)
Chapter 14.233: Reference works consulted online (this would be for an entry in an encyclopedia, companion, guide or handbook that has no specific listed/named author)

Example of a note for an online reference work/source (*the second line would be indented/hanging indentation):

2. Benezit Dictionary of Artists, s.v. "Feito, Luis," accessed October 21, 2022. https://www-oxfordartonline-

Chapter 14.234: Citing individual reference entries by author (this means an entry in an encyclopedia, companion, guide etc. with a specific listed/named author)

Chapter 14.161: Books consulted online

***Chapter 14.235: Citing paintings, photographs, and sculpture



A citation management tool available at no charge to students at the University of Toronto.
The UTL catalogue and many databases will export directly to Refworks. It can help keep track of your sources and can help create your bibliography (list of works cited) with a few clicks.
Please keep in mind that automatic citation generation tools do occasionally make mistakes, so you should carefully check any bibliography generated by a citation tool/application (check that all nouns that should start with a capital letters have actually been capitalized, etc.)

Please visit this U of T Libraries Refworks page 
If you have never had a Refworks account, click on: "Log in to Proquest Refworks" 
Click on "Create account" and follow the steps to with your utoronto email address.