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Research Guides

Citing Sources / Create Your Bibliography

Why and how we cite sources in academic writing. The guide includes links to many helpful online tutorials, style guides, and related documents to help you understand citation practice, and build correct citations for your bibliography.

More Sources for Help on Citing and Plagiarism

Quick Guide to Fixing Incomplete Citations

Are you missing key elements that you need to make a correct citation?  Discover a librarian's tips for fixing incomplete citations.

1.  U of T Libraries' LibrarySearch

If you're just missing a few details about your reference, try inputting words from the title or author into the LibrarySearch box. If your info is distinctive enough, you may bring up the title you want, and you can note the missing pieces, such as:

  • Words from the title 
  • Date 
  • Journal or book title 
  • Author last name 

LibrarySearch can also generate full citations. Select the three dots in the top right-hand corner of your resource in the LibrarySearch results.
Select 'Citation'. Scroll through the menu on the left-hand side to select the appropriate citation style. Copy the full text to your clipboard. Remember to check citations for accuracy before including them in your work. 


2. Google 

Searchable citation information

  • Significant portion of the title of the article, encased in double quotes “ “ 
  • Enough significant and distinctive words from the reference to enable you to search and retrieve the reference.  
    • Words from the title 
    • Author last name 
    • Journal title 
    • Date 

How to make this work: 

  • Pick the words and/or phrase that you will use, type them into Google.  Be sure to encase phrases from journal or article titles in double quotes (i.e. "Internet plagiarism developing strategies to curb student academic dishonesty")
  • Review the Google search results for examples where the article may be linked or cited.  Add the necessary information to your citation. 

Example: You know that the title of the article is Use of physician assistants and nurse practitioners in primary care, 1995-1999 

  • You type “use of physician assistants and nurse practitioners in primary care” into Google.   

Example: You know that the article is by Hooker, the date is 2001 and the phrase physician assistants is in the title 

  • You type hooker 2001 “physician assistants” into Google.


3. PubMed Single Citation Matcher

If your citation comes from a medical journal, this tool can help you fill in the blanks with missing citation pieces. If you have any of the information shown below, you may be able to find the lost citation using this program. 

  • Journal title
  • Date of publication 
  • Volume, issue, or first page number 
  • Author name - surname and initials Restrictions to a Citation Matcher Search:

Take note: The citation needs to be included in PubMed and the citation must be for a journal article.

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