Engineering Communication Program (ECP) can help you improve all aspects of academic writing and oral presenting in engineering and elective courses and beyond (such as job/graduate school applications). ECP services available to all undergraduate U of T engineering students. Individuals and teams of students can be accommodated in a single time slot.
APA style is the preferred citation format in business and management. The guidelines on when and how to properly cite your sources in APA Style can be found in the American Psychological Association's Publication Manual.
APA style includes two key elements that you must include in your assignment:
(Scroll further down for workshop examples of citing reports)
Market and Company reports fall under the category of gray literature (a type of material that has not been published in book or journal form and is often produced by government departments, corporations, and other organizations (e.g., technical and research reports, annual reports, brochures and fact sheets, press releases, and white papers). Grey literature can be either print or online resources.
Gray literature should be cited like a book, with author (or organizational author), year of publication, title (in italics), and either publisher information (for printed documents) or ‘Retrieved from’ and URL (for online material).
Additionally, you will include when available:
Author, A. A. (year). Title of work (Report No. xxx) [Description of form]. Retrieved from Agency Name
Using this TechNavio report that we found in Factiva database, we can examine the cover and end pages to pull the relevant information for the citation and apply the APA style (see images below):
(Author's last name, A. A. or Corporate Author's Name, Publication Year, page number for direct quotes)
Author, F.M. (Publication Year). Title of report(Report No. XXX). Retrieved from Business database.
TechNavio. (2015). Global fleet management system market 2015- 2019(TechNavio Insights). Retrieved
from Factiva database: Factiva.com
(Author's Last Name or Corporate Author's Name, Year)
Author's last name, A. A. or Corporate Author's Name. (Year report was published/updated, Month Day if given).
Title of report: Subtitle if applicable (Pub. No. if given). Retrieved from URL
PACCAR Inc. (2015). 2015 Annual Report. Retrieved from: http://www.paccar.com/media/2486/paccar-ar-2015.pdf
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