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BIO434H5: Social and Developmental Determinants of Human Health


MEDLINE is the U.S. National Library of Medicine's bibliographic database. It broadly covers all areas of biomedicine.

  • PubMed provides free access to MEDLINE plus additional life science, general science and chemistry journals.
  • MEDLINE (Ovid) is a commercial interface for accessing Medline.

Some background information about scholarly articles

Scholarly articles are available

  • for fee (e.g. subscriptions paid by the UT Library or user pay for use) 
  • for free (Open Access.  Author may be paying an article processing charge (APC).)

Versions of scholarly articles

Peer Reviewed?

Primary, Secondary & Tertiary Sources

Primary Sources:

  • original research
  • usually 1st appearance of results
  • research conducted BY authors of paper


  • Proceedings of meetings, conferences and symposia
  • Technical reports 
  • Dissertations or theses
  • Patents
  • Newspaper articles
  • Data sets, such as census statistics 
  • Listservs, newsgroups, and email
  • Scientific journal articles reporting experimental research results 

Secondary Sources:

  • describe, interpret, analyse, evaluate, comment on, and discuss primary sources
  • repackage and reorganize information


  • Dissertations or theses (may also be primary)
  • Databases
  • Books (may also be primary)
  • Newspaper articles (may also be primary)
  • Review articles
  • Magazine articles

Tertiary Sources:

  • compile, analyse and condense secondary sources into a convenient, easy-to-read form
  • tend to be factual


  • Dictionaries and encyclopedias 
  • Databases (may also be secondary)
  • Textbooks 
  • Course specific webpages

From: BIO153 LibGuide, M. Thuna (Last updated: Jan 20, 2016 1:17 PM)