Skip to main content

OCT 1133: Professional Practice #3

Library resources to help with your consulting assignments

What Is Grey Literature?

Grey Literature is any literature that has not been published through traditional means. It is often excluded from large databases and other mainstream sources.

Search grey literature to:

  • avoid bias
  • ensure that the review is as thorough as possible
  • find sources for negative results or brand new evidence
  • discover more references to published literature that your database search might have missed

CADTH's "Grey Matters" guide lists many resources. As well, the CRD guide and Chapter 6 of the Cochrane Handbook mentioned earlier in this guide include links to a number of grey literature sources.

Grey Literature Tutorial

Databases & Catalogues of Grey Literature

This list provides only a few producers and collectors of grey literature. Do a thorough search for sources in your field.

Clinical Trials Databases



Government Documents

Government bodies frequently publish reports and studies on topics relevant to health science. In Canada, government bodies at both the national and provincial levels produce relevant material.

Institutional Repositories

Many institutions have institutional repositories, online databases of publications by their members. These can include publications by faculty and student dissertations and theses.


Conferences are nodes of new research, often featuring studies before they appear in journals.

Theses and Dissertations

Students conduct both systematic reviews and original studies for their theses and dissertations. These texts are not usually included in major databases.

U of T’s Theses and Dissertations in the Sciences research guide is an excellent resource, with links for both U of T theses and dissertations and those from other institutions.

Sources for Authorities

When searching for grey literature, it is recommended to browse individual websites of identified authorities on your subject. Use the links below to find websites for specific governmental agencies and departments. 

Contacting Experts and Authors

Often, writers of systematic reviews find that some data is left out of studies. In such cases, a good option is to contact the author of the study.

Experts in the field can also be rich sources of information. Talk to an expert to find out:

  • Studies or information you have missed
  • New aspects of your research topic to consider
  • Sources of grey lit

Negative Results

Newspapers and Magazines

“Newspapers B&W (4),” NS Newsflash

Newspapers and magazines can be helpful sources of non-academic information. While the information in newspapers might not be acceptable as a source of scientific evidence, newspapers can often point you to key references or provide a source of evidence for public opinion. 

U of T's research guide on Newspapers includes thorough information and some databases that also index magazines. You can also look up individual magazines in the library catalogue to determine our access.


Searching the Web

Sometimes, the best way to find grey lit is to search the Web. Different search engines have their own search algorithms that will pick up different results.

When searching Google, it helps to use versions from different countries. If you are looking for grey lit from the UK, for example, use Google UK to find results from that country. This list links to all Google domains for different countries.

Another useful search engine is Duck Duck Go. Duck Duck Go does not collect user information and therefore results are not filtered based on your personal profile.

“keyboard detail view – macro,”  photosteve101