Image: See-ming Lee / Flickr
It is imperative that all information you get from another source is adequately cited. This includes information that is directly quoted, information that is included without being directly quoted, and all ideas that are not your own.
Different journals require different formats for citing sources. For each piece of writing that you do, you will need to look up the type of citation that is required and follow the instructions very carefully.
For each piece of information that you use from another source, you must cite the fact or idea within the text and in the Literature Cited.
In this course, we use the Council of Science Editors (CSE) style of formatting citations.
This interactive video will help you understand the importance of a standard format for referencing works you choose to support the ideas and arguments in your paper.
Note: this video does not show the CSE formatting style. You should follow the CSE formatting style for your assignment.
Species' scientific names are always underlined or italicized.
Lau and Galloway (2004) tested the preferences of pollinators visiting Campanula americana.
The first word of a title is capitalized. However, the rest of the title should be lowercase, unless it is a proper noun (e.g., a species name).
Lau JA, Galloway LF. 2004. Effects of low-efficiency pollinators on plant fitness and floral trait evolution in Campanula americana (Campanulaceae). Oecologia 141: 577-583.
The CSE (Council of Science Editors) style is used in the examples below to illustrate different aspects of citing:
A journal article citation contains: last name and initials of all authors, publication year, article title, journal title, volume number, and the pages on which the article appears. Note that the initials of each author appear after the last name. The abbreviated journal title must be used. A list of abbreviated journal titles can be found on ISI Web of Science or on the Chemical Abstracts Service:
Ricciardi A, Rasmussen JB. 1998. Predicting the identity and impact of future biological invaders: A priority for aquatic resource management. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 55(7): 1759-1765.
A book citation contains: last name and initials of all authors, publication year, title, the city and name of the publishing company, and the total number of pages:
Williamson M. 1996. Biological invasions. London: Chapman & Hall. 128 p.
Chapter in an edited book
List the authors of the chapter first, followed by the publication date, chapter title, book editors, city and name of publishing company, and where the chapter appears in the book (e.g., which pages):
Leach JH, Mills EL, Dochoda MR. 1999. Non-indigenous species in the Great Lakes: Ecosystem impacts, binational policies, and management. In: Taylor WW, Ferreri CP, editors. Great Lakes Fisheries Policy and Management: A Binational Perspective. East Lansing (MI): Michigan State University Press. p. 185-207.
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