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BIO326H5: Ornithology



•The timeliness (publication date) of the information. Is the information up to date?
•Broken links or an old publication date indicates the page has not been updated recently.


•The importance of the information for your needs.
•Consider your audience and compare with a variety of sources.


•The source (author, publisher, sponsor) of the information.
•Check for contact information and the credentials of the author.


•The reliability (source, evidence, truthfulness) of the information.
•Think about the source and look for evidence of objectivity, bias or error.


•The reason (teach, sell, entertain) the information exists.
•Identify the type of information (fact or opinion) and the intent of the author.

Bias in Resources

What is Bias?

3 b: an inclination of temperament or outlook; especially: a personal and sometimes unreasoned judgment: PREJUDICE

From Merriam-Webster Dictionary at


Types of Bias:

•Selection and Omission: What gets covered? Left out?
•Word Choice and Tone
•Placement of the Story ("above or below the fold")
•Biases by images, captions, camera angles
•Source control: Where does news come from?
•Statistics/crowd counts