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Master of Science in Biomedical Communications

Evaluating Your Sources

How to Evaluate Sources: The CRAAP Test!

When deciding which articles to use to support the ideas and arguments in your paper, ask yourself: is it good, or is it craap?!


  • The timeliness (publication date) of the information. Is the information up to date?
  • Broken links or an old publication date indicates the page has not been updated recently.


  • The importance of the information for your needs.
  • Consider your audience and compare with a variety of sources.


  • The source (author, publisher, sponsor) of the information.
  • Check for contact information and the credentials of the author.


  • The reliability (source, evidence, truthfulness) of the information.
  • Think about the source and look for evidence of objectivity, bias or error.


  • The reason (teach, sell, entertain) the information exists.
  • Identify the type of information (fact or opinion) and the intent of the author.