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Research Guides

Indigenous Studies

This guide is a starting point to find research in Indigenous Studies. It is meant primarily to assist students from the Centre for Indigenous Studies, but may be of use to students looking for Indigenous Research in general.

Citing Elders and Knowledge Keepers

The following citation styles were developed by Lorisia McLeod, who is from the James Smith Cree Nation and is a librarian at Norquest College.

MLA Style Citation

Last name, First name., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. City/Community they live in if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. Date Month Year. 

Example: Cardinal, Delores., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. 4 April 2004. 

APA Style Citation

Last name, First initial., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. Where they live if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. Personal communication. Month Date, Year

Example: Cardinal, D., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. Personal communication. April 4, 2004.

Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.

OCAP Principles

The Report on the OCAP Principles, which stands for Ownership, Control, Access and Possession, is available below. From the First Nations Information Governance Centre, OCAP Principles are described as:

"The First Nations principles of OCAP® are a set of standards that establish how First Nations data should be collected, protected, used, or shared. They are the de facto standard for how to conduct research with First Nations.

Standing for ownership, control, access and possession, OCAP® asserts that First Nations have control over data collection processes in their communities, and that they own and control how this information can be used."

Books on Indigenous Research Methods