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Research Guides

The Indigenous History of Tkaronto

Tkaronto or what is commonly referred to as Toronto has a rich Indigenous past and present.

Tkaronto History

A Sacred Trust: Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation


I would like to acknowledge this sacred land on which the University of Toronto operates. It has been a site of human activity for 15,000 years. This land is the territory of the Huron-Wendat and Petun First Nations, the Seneca, and most recently, the Mississaugas of the Credit River. The territory was the subject of the Dish With One Spoon Wampum Belt Covenant, an agreement between the Iroquois Confederacy and Confederacy of the Ojibwe and allied nations to peaceably share and care for the resources around the Great Lakes.

Today, the meeting place of Toronto is still the home to many Indigenous people from across Turtle Island and we are grateful to have the opportunity to work in the community, on this territory.
Revised by the Elders Circle (Council of Aboriginal Initiatives) on November 6, 2014


This guide brings together a few key sources on the Indigenous history of the Toronto region, which have been written or created by some of the many people are working today to uncover this history and to make it known and recognized. They come from many backgrounds, Mississauga (Anishinaabeg), Haudenosaunee, Huron-Wendat, Metis, and other nations both Indigenous and non-Indigenous. We owe them all of our respect. We would like to acknowledge in particular those teachers from whom we have had the privilege of learning about this history formally, Professor Alex McKay, Professor Heidi Bohaker, and Professor Jill Carter, as well as the work being done by First Story

This guide was created by Sara McDowell and previously maintained by a team including Cora Coady. It is currently maintained by Desmond Wong.