Skip to Main Content

Research Guides

APS111: Engineering Strategies & Practice


Laws outline what is legally required in the industry.

To find laws, you may need to look at the federal, provincial and municipal laws governing the area you are interested in. For example, when designing in Toronto, you might need to consult:


Codes are "...a set of rules of procedure and standards of materials designed to secure uniformity and protect the public interest in such matters as building construction and public health established usually by a public agency and commonly having the force of law in a particular jurisdiction" (Webster's Third New International Dictionary).

Codes are specific to a region; for example there is a building code that is specific to Ontario, one that is specific to BC, etc. They can become laws for a specified region.

Codes can aid in your design by outlining what is generally acceptable and legally required in the industry. Below are some examples of codes that might be helpful in your project:


Standards are documents that describe the important features of a product, service or system.

For example, CSA Standard Z262.34-00 Ice Hockey Pucks specifies a hockey puck's material, size, mass, hardness at room temperature and test methods.

By applying standards, organizations can help ensure their products and services are consistent, compatible, interchangeable, safe and effective. Standards can be voluntary or mandated.

Some of U of T's major standard databases are:

Find more information about standards, other standard collections at U of T, and codes in the guide below.