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ANT333 Human Origins II: The Genus Homo

This guide brings together resources and research strategies for the study of the evolutionary history of our own genus, Homo, using the fossil and archaeological record, with a focus on the unique biological and behavioural characteristics of modern huma

Citation using the Journal of Human Evolution

For a fully immersive physical anthropology experience, please use the Journal of Human Evolution Guide for Authors to format in-text citations and references.

If you are more comfortable with other citation styles, any standard scientific referencing formats, as long as they stay consistent through the annotated bibliography, are allowed. Please check the UTM Library's citation style guides for more help choosing, and staying consistent with, a science citation style.

If you decide to use the JHE Style, here are some General Comments about types of sources cited:

  • Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa).
  • Unpublished results, manuscripts in preparation, and personal communications should not be included in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text using 'author's unpublished results', 'in prep.', 'pers. comm.', or similar expressions within parentheses. If citing a personal communication, please ensure that you supply verification from the person providing the communication that they agree to it being included in your submission. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication. Submitted manuscripts should not be included in the reference list.
  • If gray literature documents (unpublished reports, submitted manuscripts, etc.) are cited, they must be included as such in the reference list.
  • For journal articles pre-published online, the volume number and page range should be substituted by the full URL of the DOI.
  • For online only articles, page range should be substituted by article number (DOI is not required).
  • Issue number within volume should only be included (within parentheses, between volume number and page range) when page numbering is not consecutive throughout successive issues of the same volume.
  • In taxonomic papers, taxonomic authorities (i.e., authorships) should be provided after taxon names, and the corresponding references included in the reference list (see specific guidelines for taxonomic papers below).

In-Text Citations

All citations in text should refer to:

  1. Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication;
  2. Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication;
  3. Three or more authors: first author's name followed by'et al.,' and the year of publication.

Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be listed first chronologically, then alphabetically.


  • Kimura and Yaguramaki (2009), or (Kimura and Yaguramaki, 2009)
  • with more than two authors, the citation style is McGrew et al. (2009) or (McGrew et al., 2009)
  • the convention (McGrew, 2010a; McGrew, 2010b) or (McGrew, 2010 a,b) should be used where more than one paper by the same author(s) in one year
  • citations listed in the text should be arranged in chronological order, not in alphabetical order (e.g., Schoening et al., 2008; Boesch et al., 2009; Ungar and Sponheimer, 2011; Kamilar and Marshack, 2012).

Reference List:

  • References should be arranged first alphabetically, based on the last name of the first author, and then further sorted chronologically if necessary.
  • More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters "a", "b", "c", etc., placed after the year of publication.


Citation Management Options at UofT

UTL maintains a comprehensive guide to citation management software such as EndNote, Zotero and Mendeley. Please see the CITATION MANAGER TABLE.