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Research Guides

POL466: Topics in International Politics

Find IGOs

IGO documentation and publications

 Use this Google custom search (from Carleton University):



Since the mid-1990s, many governments and international governmental organizations (IGOs) have made their publications available on the internet. Use the custom Google search above as a place to start. 

Tip: If you have an exact title, search it in Google as a phrase by putting quotation marks around it (. "Safeguarding asylum: Sustaining Canada's commitments to refugees").

Print and microfiche documents are available in the Government Publications Collection on the 5th floor of Robarts Library. 

Data, statistics and information: definitions

The meaning of the terms data, information and statistics are often misunderstood. Below are definitions provided by Statistics Canada

Data: According to Statistics Canada, data can be defined as "facts or figures from which conclusions can be drawn". 

Information: Statistics Canada defines information as "data that have been recorded, classified, organized, related, or interpreted within a framework so that meaning emerges". 

Statistics: Statistics Canada defines statistics as "a type of information obtained through mathematical operations on numerical data". 

The chart below illustrates the differences between these terms: 

Figure 1. Data collected on the weight of 20 individuals in your classroom




20 kg, 25 kg

5 individuals in the 20-to-25-kg range

Mean weight = 22.5 kg

28 kg, 30 kg, etc.

15 individuals in the 26-to-30-kg range

Median weight = 28 kg


For a more detailed explanation, please visit

Key statistical sources

Citing government information

Scholarly literature

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Guide Authorship

This guide was created by Emily Chapman, Toronto Academic Library Intern, and Margaret Wall, Liaison Librarian for Political Science, and includes content from guides created by Sam-chin Li, Government Information Librarian.