Broadly speaking, plagiarism is failing to give credit for any ideas or expressions of ideas that are not your own. Plagiarism includes:
The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) publishes guidance for authors about the conduct, reporting, editing, and publication of scholarly works in medical journals. This guidance is widely used across the sciences.
In their guidance document, the ICMJE recommends a system for references that is based on a style developed by the National Library of Medicine. This referencing style is called by many names, such as ICMJE Recommendations style, Uniform Recommendations style, and Vancouver style.
In the ICMJE style, sources are cited in the text using a numbering system, and they are listed on a references page at the end of the document.
Use the superscript function in Word to insert the numbers into your text. The button is circled in the image below:
Reference examples for the most commonly used materials are provided here to get you started. They are adapted from the U.S. National Library of Medicine's Samples of Formatted References for Authors of Journal Articles.
1. Author AA, Author BB. Title of article. Abbr Journal Title. Year;Volume(Issue):startpage-endpage. doi.
1. Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(4):284-7. doi:10.1056/nejmsb020632.
Articles with more than six authors should list the first six authors, followed by et al.
2. Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, Author DD, Author EE, Author FF, et al. Title of article. Abbr Journal Title. Year;Volume(Issue):startpage-endpage. doi.
2. De Castro F, Barrientos-Gutierrez T, Braverman-Bronstein A, Santelli J, Place JM, Eternod-Aramburu M, et al. Adolescent access to information on contraceptives: a mystery client study in Mexico. J Adolesc Health. 2018;62(3):265-72. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.08.001.
3. Author AA, Author BB. Title of book. # edition. Location: Publisher; Year.
3. Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis; Mosby; 2002.
4. Author AA, Author BB, editors. Title of book. # edition. Location: Publisher; Year.
4. Gilstrap LC 3rd, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP, editors. Oberative obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.
5. Author AA, Author BB, Author CC. Title of book. # edition. Editor AA, editor. Location: Publisher; Year.
5. Breedlove GK, Schorfheide AM. Adolescent pregnancy. 2nd ed. Wieczorek PR, editor. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Education Services; 2001.
6. Chapter Author AA, Chapter Author BB. Title of chapter. In: Editor AA, Editor BB, editors. Title of book. Location: Publisher; Year. Page #s of chapter.
6. Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.
8. Author AA. Title of report. Location: Performing Agency; Date. Report No.: report number. Contract No.: contract number. Sponsored by Sponsoring Agency.
8. Russell ML, Goth-Goldstein R, Apte MG, Fisk WJ. Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne Rhinovirus. Berkeley (CA): Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Energy Technologies Dvision; 2002 Jan. Report No.: LBNL49574. Contract No.: DEAC0376SF00098. Sponsored by the Department of Energy.
9. Author AA/Organization. Title of report [Internet]. Location: Sponsor/Publisher; Date [revised Date, if applicable; cited Date]. Length. Report number if available. Available from: URL.
9. United States Federal Communicators Network. Communicators guide for federal, state, regional, and local communicators [Internet]. Washington (DC): Department of Agriculture (US); 2000 [revised 2001 Dec; cited 2006 Nov 1]. 75 p. Available from: http://www.usda.gov/news/pubs/fcn/table.htm.
10. Title of the website [Internet]. Location of site sponsor/publisher: Sponsor/Publisher; Copyright date [date updated if available; date cited]. Available from: URL.
10. eatright.org [Internet]. Chicago: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics; c2016 [cited 2016 Dec 27]. Available from: http://www.eatright.org/.
11. Title of the website [Internet]. Location of site sponsor/publisher: Sponsor/Publisher; Copyright date [date updated if available; date cited]. Title of part of the website; [approximate length in screens or paragraphs]. Available from: URL.
11. American Medical Association [Internet]. Chicago: The Association; c1995-1996 [cited 2016 Dec 27]. Office of International Medicine; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://www.ama-assn.org/about/office-international-medicine.
The following text is taken from: Brown HK, Speechley KN, Macnab J, Natale R, Campbell MK. Neonatal morbidity associated with late preterm and early term birth: the roles of gestational age and biological determinants of preterm birth. Int J Epidemiol. 2014 Jun;43(3):802-14. Doi:10.1093/ije/dyt251.
Compared with term infants, infants born late preterm are at increased risk for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission,1-2 hospital readmission2-4 and longer hospital stay.5 They are also at greater risk for respiratory morbidities,1,3,5,6 temperature instability,5,6 hypoglycaemia,5,6 sepsis,1,2 hyperbilirubinaemia,3,5,6 necrotizing enterocolitis,2 neurological morbidities,1,2 and even neonatal and infant mortality.7
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