Primary documents are documents from the time and the place that you are investigating with your history class. They can include, but are not limited to, letters, diaries, newspaper articles, speeches, photographs, artifacts, and more, written or created by people who witnessed or were involved in the events being studied.
Primary documents should be evaluated with a critical eye, and due consideration should be given to the identities of the creators of the materials, their intentions and biases, their audiences, and their accuracy. In particular, representations of Indigenous peoples created by settlers, colonial authorities, or other non-Indigenous peoples are fraught with bias and should not be taken at face value. Our research guide Infusing Indigenous Perspectives in K-12 Teaching can help you find teaching resources that represent the perspectives of Indigenous peoples. For more information on evaluating a variety of primary sources, and for lists of example questions to consider, see the University of Toronto Libraries’ guide to evaluating sources.
Throughout this guide, you will find a number of links to both open access and licensed resources.
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