Skip to main content

Research Impact

What is Citation Analysis?

Citation Analysis is a way of assessing the impact of an entity by quantifying and analyzing other publications that have cited that entity.  Citation Analysis can be used to assess the impact of an individual publication, researcher, or journals. Using citation analysis can help determine how a work has influenced scholarly discourse.

Citation Analysis for Individuals

 

H-Index

What is the H-Index?

The "H-Index" is one of the most popular quantifiers of Citation Impact because it
measures both researcher’sproductivity and citation impact. Invented by Jorge E. Hirsch in 2005, the h-index is defined as "...the number of papers with citation number higher or equal to h." (Hirsch, 2005). This means if a researcher has ten papers that have been cited ten our more times, he or she has an h-index of 10.

The h-index for a researcher can be calculated using a number of tools available freely on the web or licensed by the University of Toronto, but the numbers will vary depending on the scope of the database.

Sciences

  • The Web of Science tracks citations across the Sciences, Social Sciences and Humanities, and includes conference proceedings as well. The Web of Science is particularly useful for citations in the Sciences.

  • Scopus provides citation tracking and a number of other visualization and analysis tools. Scopus is particularly useful for citations in the Sciences.

 

Social Sciences and Humanities

  • Google Scholar is useful for finding citations in books, grey literature, government and legal publications, and non-English resources. Google Scholar also indexes journals in the Sciences, Social Sciences, and Humanities, though the scope of this is unknown.

- See more at: https://onesearch.library.utoronto.ca/copyright/research-impact#sthash.Ps4mow5v.dpuf

Sciences

  • The Web of Science tracks citations across the Sciences, Social Sciences and Humanities, and includes conference proceedings as well. The Web of Science is particularly useful for citations in the Sciences.

  • Scopus provides citation tracking and a number of other visualization and analysis tools. Scopus is particularly useful for citations in the Sciences.

 

Social Sciences and Humanities

  • Google Scholar is useful for finding citations in books, grey literature, government and legal publications, and non-English resources. Google Scholar also indexes journals in the Sciences, Social Sciences, and Humanities, though the scope of this is unknown.

- See more at: https://onesearch.library.utoronto.ca/copyright/research-impact#sthash.Ps4mow5v.dpuf

Tools for Determining H-Index:

Sciences:

  • The Web of Science tracks citations across the Sciences, Social Sciences, and Humanities, and includes conference proceedings as well. The Web of Science is particularly useful for citations in the Sciences
  • Scopus provides citation tracking and a number of other visualization and analysis tools. Scopus is particularly useful for citations in the Sciences

 Social Sciences and Humanities:

  • Google Scholar is useful for finding citations in books, grey literature, government and legal publications, and non-English resources. Google Scholar also indexes journals in the Sciences, Social Sciences, and Humanities, though the scope of this is unknown.

Librarians can also help you determine your h-index. For more information, contact your Liaison Librarian.

Context

Because citation patterns and authorship patterns vary dramatically between disciplines, a researcher's h-index must be viewed within the context of his or her discipline. For example, in a discipline where co-authorship is common and papers have long lists of references, such as Medicine, the average h-index will be much higher. In a discipline, such as Philosophy, where co-authorship is rare and papers have less citations, the average h-index will be relatively low. Though the h-index is traditionally calculated using only journal articles, for disciplines where it is more common to publish books or book chapters, these publications are included.

Additionally, the h-index will fluctuate as a paper reaches its citation peak. After publishing an individual article, it takes time for the article to be read by other researchers and cited in their publications, and articles can continue to be cited long after their initial publication.

Tools for Citation Analysis

Licensed Tools:

  • Journal Citation Reports (JCR) identifies top ranking journals by subject field, and is frequently used as a primary metric with which to compare the scholarly output of researchers and institutions
  • Sciverse/Science Direct 25 Top Cited ranks the top cited articles by discipline and/or journal from 2004 onwards.
  • The Web of Science tracks citations across the Sciences, Social Sciences and Humanities, and includes conference proceedings as well. It can be used to evaluate individual article impact or researcher impact.
  • Scopus provides citation tracking and a number of other visualization and analysis tools for individual articles or researchers. 

Free Tools for Citation Analysis

  • Publish or Perish is a software program that can help you to create the best case for the impact of your research.
  • Google Scholar is useful for finding citations in books, grey literature, government and legal publications, and non-English resources
  • ArnetMiner is a search and data mining service for academic social networks
  • CiteSeerX is a powerful and feature-rich search engine and digital library focused primarily on computer and information sciences
  • EigenFactor tracks the price and value of thousands of journals. Its Open Access Cost Effectiveness project analyses the value of author-pay Open Access journals
  • Ideas is a service that ranks scholarship in Economics and related fields
  • The Becker Medical Library’s Model for Assessment of Research Impact helps researchers plan and account for the diffusion of their research and its impact