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MST232H1: How To Be A Barbarian - Customized Resources

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MST232H1: How To Be A Barbarian - Customized Resources

Viking arms and armour. Photo by Helgi Halldórsson. Gratefully adapted with a CC license from Flickr.

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Article Databases


Search LibrarySearch

Known as LibrarySearch, this interdisciplinary database is UofT's largest--and your best bet when more focused databases let you down. It combs through more than 1,200 databases, journal packages, e-book collections, and other resources ranging from the sciences to the social sciences and humanities. At its best, LibrarySearch finds relevant results you won't find elsewhere; at its worst, however, LibrarySearch can overwhelm you will a mish-mash of results from different subject areas.


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Other Databases

L'Annee Philologique: Bibliography of the Classical World

Film & Television Literature Index

International Medieval Bibliography (IMB)

Over one million bibliographic citations to journal articles, essays in books, and book reviews in the field of religion. Covers all aspects of the major world religions and now includes all the content of the online Catholic Periodical and Literature Index.

The MLA is the major English literature database. It covers criticism related to literature, linguistics and folklore from 1921 to the present, and contains more than 1-million citations to journal articles, series, books, working papers and conference proceedings. Most of the materials indexed before 1963 are American.

Bibliography of the History of Art

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Birkett, Tom, and Roderick Dale. The Vikings Reimagined: Reception, Recovery, Engagement.. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 2019.

Brink, Stefan, and Neil Price. The Viking World. London: Routledge, 2008.

Collins, Roger, and Roger Collins. Visigothic Spain, 409–711.. Hoboken: Wiley, 2008.

Davis, R.H.C. A History of Medieval Europe from Constantine to Saint Louis. 3rd ed. Longman, 2005.

Falconieri, Tommaso di Carpegna. The Militant Middle Ages: A Contemporary Politics Between New Barbarians and Modern Crusaders. Leiden: Brill, 2020.

Ghosh, Shami. Writing the Barbarian Past: Studies in Early Medieval Historical Narrative. .Brill, 2015.

Gillett, Andrew. On Barbarian Identity: Critical Approaches to Ethnicity in the Early Middle Ages. . Turnhout: Brepols, 2002.

Goffart, Walter, and Ruth Mazo Karras. Barbarian Tides: The Migration Age and the Later Roman Empire.. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009.

Halsall, Guy. Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450-900.. London: Routledge, 2003.

Hen, Y. Roman Barbarians: The Royal Court and Culture in the Early Medieval West.. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2007.

James, Edward. Europe’s Barbarians AD 200-600.. London: Routledge, 2009.

Kuuliala, Jenni, and Jussi Rantala. Travel, Pilgrimage and Social Interaction from Antiquity to the Middle Ages. . 1st ed. Milton: Routledge, 2020.

Legassie, Shayne Aaron. The Medieval Invention of Travel. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2017.

McLeod, Shane. The Beginning of Scandinavian Settlement in England: The Viking “Great Army” and Early Settlers, c. 865-900.. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2014.

Montanari, Massimo. A Cultural History of Food in the Medieval Age. . London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2014.

Muldoon, James, Ed. The North Atlantic Frontier of Medieval Europe: Vikings and Celts. Farnham: Routledge, 2009.

Pohl, Walter, and Gerda Heydemann. Post-Roman Transitions: Christian and Barbarian Identities in the Early Medieval West.. Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, 2013.

Poulsen, Bjørn, and Søren M. Sindbæk. Settlement and Lordship in Viking and Early Medieval Scandinavia.. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2011.

Price, Neil. The Children of Ash and Elm: A History of the Vikings..Penguin, 2020.

Richards, J.D. The Vikings: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press, 2005.

Rix, Robert. The Barbarian North in Medieval Imagination: Ethnicity, Legend, and Literature.. New York: Routledge, 2015.

Romano, John. Medieval Travel and Travelers: A Reader. University of Toronto Press, 2020.

Sigurđsson, Jón Viđar. Viking Friendship: The Social Bond in Iceland and Norway, c. 900-1300.. Cornell University Press, 2017.

Whalen, Brett Edward. Pilgrimage in the Middle Ages: A Reader. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2011.

Winroth, Anders. The Age of the Vikings.. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014.

Winroth, Anders. The Conversion of Scandinavia: Vikings, Merchants, and Missionaries in the Remaking of Northern Europe.. Yale University Press, 2012.

Wyatt, David. Slaves and Warriors in Medieval Britain and Ireland, 800-1200. Leiden: Brill, 2009.

Whitfield, Susan. Life Along the Silk Road. 2nd ed. Oakland, Calif: University of California Press, 2015.

Woolgar, C. M., D. Serjeantson, and T. Waldron. Food in Medieval England: Diet and Nutrition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Encyclopedias & Dictionaries



Ancient Europe, 8000 B.C. to A.D. 1000: Encyclopedia of the Barbarian World

Encyclopedia of Barbarian Europe: Society in Transformation

Trade & Travel

Trade, Travel, and Exploration in the Middle Ages: An Encyclopedia

Encyclopedia of World Trade: From Ancient Times to the Present

Travel and Travelers - Medieval Studies - Oxford Bibliographies

Medieval Medicine & Disease

Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia

Ancient Greece & Rome

Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity

Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (1 ed.)

Who's Who in Classical Mythology

Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Brill's New Pauly

Middle Ages

Medieval Studies - Oxford Bibliographies

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Up to date, and intended for both novices and specialists, this 4-volume set covers European history, society, religion, and culture between A.D. 500 to 1500. Articles number about 5,000. They range from brief to lengthy, include bibliographies, and often unearth material you can only find elsewhere with difficulty. Women and children, for example, get substantial attention. The set contains a thematic listing of entries, a general index, a list of medieval popes and antipopes, and an index of alternative place names.

Medieval England: An Encyclopedia

In entries varying from 500-word descriptions to 3,000-word overviews, this encyclopedia aims at helping undergraduates and the general public in coming to grips with the political, social, religious, economic, intellectual, literary and artistic history of France between roughly 500 and 1500 A.D.. Various useful lists complement these entries: The Kings, Counts, Dukes; Popes; Architectural Terms; and Musical Terms.

This introduction to German and Dutch-speaking Europe focuses on the region’s major people, events, places, daily life, and accomplishments between roughly 500 and 1500 A.D. Alphabetical entries on such topics as patronage, diet and nutrition, and Segher Diengotgaf are made accessible through a list of entries by category (e.g. Music; Persons; Religion and Theology; Women, Gender and Families), as well as by the usual index at the back.

Viking invasions, language, mythology, saints, clothing, craftsmanship, architecture—these are some of the many topics covered in this encyclopedia. The entries, centred on such themes as lineage, manuscripts, persons and scholarship, focus on the period 500 to 1600 A.D., and come with cross-references and bibliographies. There are alphabetical and thematic tables of contents.

Medieval Archaeology: An Encyclopedia

The major English-language comprehensive history of the Middle Ages, this work is a completely new edition of the former standard work, The Cambridge Medieval History (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1911; St. Michael’s 2nd Floor – D117 .C3). See, in particular, chapter 2 on the Barbarian invasions.

Medieval Folklore: An Encyclopedia of Myths, Legends, Tales, Beliefs, and Customs


The major English-language encyclopedia on Catholic topics, it contains some 17,000 articles, each with a bibliography emphasizing the primary sources. Unfortunately many of the articles in the 2003/online edition are reprints from the 1967 edition without any updating. Use this work to get an overview of a subject and to see how it can be divided into narrower topics for a paper.

Encyclopedia of Religion, 2nd ed.

Oxford dictionary of the Christian Church


Primary Sources

Ammianus Marcellinus. History.4th Century. Volume III, Books 27-31. Loeb Classical Library.

Anonymous. Hildebrandslied. Translated by Francis A. Wood. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1914. Internet Medieval Sourcebook, Fordham University, 2019.

Caesar, Julius. The War for Gaul : A New Translation [Gallic Wars]. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2019.

Gildas.On the Ruin of Britain. Translated by John Allen Giles, 1999. Project Gutenberg.

Gregory, Bishop of Tours.The Merovingians [History of the Franks]. Translated by Alexander Callander Murray. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2005.

Jordanes. The Gothic History. English Version. Princeton: Univ. Press, 1915.

Nennius, Gildas, and others. Six Old English Chronicles. London: Bell & Daldy, 1848.


Orosius, Paulus. The Seven Books of History Against the Pagans, edited by Roy J Deferrari. Baltimore: Catholic University of America Press, 2001.

Paul, the Deacon. History of the Lombards, edited by Edward Peters and Ruth Mazo Karras. Translated by William Dudley Foulke. Philadelphia [Pa: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1974.

Procopius of Caesarea. History of the Wars.6th Century. Loeb Classical Library.

Volume 1
Volume 2
Volume 3
Volume 4
Volume 5

Salvian, of Marseilles. The Writings of Salvian, the Presbyter, edited by Jeremiah Francis O'Sullivan. Washington, D.C: Catholic University of America Press, 2008.

Tacitus, Cornelius. Agricola and  Germany, edited by Anthony Birley. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Primary Source Websites

Medieval Family Life

Medieval Travel Writing

Internet Medieval Sourcebook


Argument & Evidence: An Introduction

Problems, Questions, & Thesis Statements

Developing a Research Question: From Topic to Thesis

Reading for Argument 1: Drag & Drop


Read the first few paragraphs of a scholarly journal article identify the author's thesis statement, roadmap, evidence, justification, and literature review. Please review this brief glossary before starting.

Reading for Argument 2

Read excerpts of a scholarly journal article and get practice identifying a research question, a thesis statement, and concrete evidence.