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Research Guides

ESC101: Praxis I

Evaluating information

You should use sources that are appropriate for your assignment.  There is a lot of information available out there, but not all information is equal.  Some resources will be better suited and more appropriate for you to use than others. 


You can evaluate the information you find using the CRAAP test to determine if it is appropriate for you to use - and to show that it is good evidence for your arguments.

The CRAAP test

Using less credible sources to support design claims can lead to a less credible design. Before using any source, evaluate it for credibility. One method of evaluation is the CRAAP test:


The timeliness of the information


The importance of the information for your needs


The source of the information


The reliability, truthfulness, and correctness of the information


The reason the information exists

Use the worksheet below to help evaluate sources.

Scholarly vs. popular articles

When doing research, people use a variety of sources. Popular articles are a good starting point and place to get background information. Scholarly or research articles are considered credible sources of information and can help support claims through research.

Scholarly articles... Popular articles...
are written by researchers, university faculty and scholars are written by free-lance or salaried reporters and writers
use the technical language of a specific research area use language the general public would understand
usually have a reference list and may be peer-reviewed* rarely have a reference list

*Peer-review articles are assessed for quality by researchers in the field before they are published. These articles are considered to have a high level of credibility.

Use the directory below to help determine if a journal or periodical is peer-reviewed: