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Research Guides

CRI3146 - Inequality and Criminal Justice

Recommended Resources

  • Enter your keywords in the search box
  • Under Articles on the Results page you can limit to Scholarly Only and under Books choose Online only (print books from the library are unavailable at this time)
  • NOTE: while UT libraries remain closed, UT students and faculty have access to  ebooks through the HathiTrust Digital Library
  • You can also access the Advanced search from the library homepage (under Article search) or the Articles hitlist screen (below the search box)
  • The Advanced search function is limited and only allows a maximum of 128 characters in your search statement


  • Includes Criminal Justice Abstracts as part of its suite of databases
  • You can search EBSCO in its entirety or select from the list of databases on the inaugural screen.
  • Once you’ve reached the search screen, access the complete set of databases by selecting Choose Database (located at the top of the screen)
  • Unlike SummonEBSCO does not limit the number of characters in your search statement
  • Bonus FeatureCriminal Justice Abstracts links to References (Cited References), as well as records which cite a particular article (Times Cited in this Database). This may lead to additional relevant sources



  • Simple keyword search
  • No scholarly/peer reviewed filter in Google Scholar
  • Use Ulrich's Web to determine if a journal is scholarly:
    • Enter the journal title in the search box
    • The results screen will display a striped referee's jersey beside the title to indicate it is refereed/peer reviewed
  • Links to Related articles and records which cite a particular article (Cited by)


Essay Topics

  • Break your topic down into its individual concepts
  • List synonyms and alternative keywords for each concept (if applicable)
  • For additional search terms check out the keywords and subject terms appearing in particularly relevant citations



  • For EBSCOProquest and JSTOR in particular, use the search form to construct a Boolean search, using OR to connect synonyms and AND to connect concepts


  • NOTE: the asterisk is a truncation symbol which searches multiple word endings, e.g., colonize, colonizer, colonization, etc.
  • For Summon and Google Scholar select a term from each concept to perform a simple search, e.g., colonialism criminology

    • Remember that Google Scholar only allows basic keyword searching and Summon’s Advanced Search is limited

  • Use the filters provided by each resource to fine-tune your results.  The scholarly/peer-reviewed/academic, subject, and date filters may be particularly useful


Topic #1: Colonialism, Criminology and Criminal Justice – an overview and review of the literature

  • Concepts (with suggested synonyms and alternative keywords):
    • colonialism or colonize or imperialism or settler
    • criminology or criminal justice or police or policing or prison* or imprison or jail or inmate or incarcerat* or courts or sentencing


Topic #2: The Experience of Racism within Prisons - a review of the scholarly literature 

  • Concepts/synonyms:
    • racism
    • experience or perception or understanding or observation
    • prison or jail or penitentiary 
  • Other options:  Proximity search:
    • EBSCO: racism n10 (prison or jail or penitentiary) finds terms within 10 words of each other (the "n" stands for "near") (EBSCO Help Screen)
    • Proquest: n/10 finds terms within 10 words of each other (Proquest Help Screen)
    • JSTOR: use the Boolean drop down menu (NEAR) to find terms within 5, 10, or 25 words of each other. This only works for single word combinations, e.g., racism NEAR 5 prison (JSTOR Help Screen)


Topic #3: Documenting the Black Inmate Experience - what we know from the work of the Office of the Correctional Investigator

  • Concepts/synonyms:
    • black or african canadian or african american
    • inmate or prisoner

Topic #4: Race and Experience with Parole in Canada and Elsewhere - a review of the literature

  • Concepts/synonyms:
    • race or racism or racial
    • parole or temporary absence or statutory release or conditional release
    • canada (if you wish to limit results to Canada; otherwise, you could omit canada from your search statement and see if the subject filter includes canada in your results)


Topic #5: Black Experience with Parole in Canada - an examination of parole outcomes documented by the Parole Board of Canada

  • Concepts/synonyms:
    • black or african
    • parole or temporary absence or statutory release or conditional release
    • canada (you can also omit canada from your search statement and see if the subject filter includes canada in your results


Topic #6: The War on Drugs (Cannabis) in Historical and Contemporary Context

  • Concepts/synonyms:
    • "war on drugs" - enter this as a phrase using quotation marks, or use the following proximity operators:
    • cannabis or marijuana

Writing and Citing

Writing and Research

This website offers step-by-step advice on each stage of the writing process, from researching your topic, to writing your final product. Writing Centres at U. of T. offer individual consultation, workshopscourses, help for graduate studentsnon-native English speakers, and online advice.  Select from a list of writing centres.

Offers help with learning, writing, and study skills, through workshops, individual consultations by appointment, and links.  

Service for graduate students.

An online planner for helping students complete assignments on schedule.

Credit:  This guide was adapted from Cite It Right, Business Informaton Centre


Avoiding Plagiarism

A very helpful guide, with tutorials and videos explaining what plagiarism is and how to avoid it

Additional guidance on avoiding plagiarism and integrating your source material into your written assigments


Citation Styles and Online Tools

Provides guidance to all the major citation styles, including APA.  Also features online citation machines

Citation and Documentation - Excelsior Online Writing Lab