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Research Guides

ROP299Y/399Y - Reviewing the University of Toronto’s Climate Change Plan to Increase Campus Participation in Addressing Climate Change

In-Text Citations

In-Text Citations: The Basics

  • Formatting font for in-text citations
  • Short quotations
  • Long quotations
  • Summary or paraphrase

In-Text Citations: Author/Authors

  • Citing an Author or Authors
  • Citing Indirect Sources
  • Electronic Sources including Sources Without Page Numbers

Books (APA) - Referencing

Books with Author(s):

Singh, S. (2000). The code book : The science of secrecy from ancient Egypt to quantum cryptography. New York, NY: Anchor Books. 

Scroll down to "Single Author". 

Books with Editor(s):

Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

Scroll down to "Edited Book, No Author". 


Chapter in Book (APA) - Referencing

Chapter in a Book:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.

O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: A metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York, NY: Springer.

Scroll down to "Article or Chapter in an Edited Book".

Articles (APA) - Referencing


Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.

Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.

Scroll down to "Article in Journal Paginated by Volume".

websites (APA) - Referencing


Satalkar, B. (2010, July 15). Water aerobics. Retrieved from

Scroll down to "Example". 

Click on the link for more information on citing electronic sources.

Lecture Notes (APA) - Referencing

Lecture Notes:

"Identify as lecture or performance in your paper. Do not list in your References." 

Scroll down to "Lectures and Live Performances."