Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Research Guides

CIN240: Gross Out! The Body in Comedy

General Guidelines [Chicago Style]

​General Guidelines (Source: Purdue OWL)

For more information, please refer to The Chicago Manual of Style Online.

  • Text should be consistently double-spaced, including block quotations, notes, bibliography entries, table titles, and figure captions.
  • Indent the first line of paragraphs one half-inch from the left margin. Click on the link for more information on indentation.
  • For block quotations, which are also called extracts:
  1. A prose quotation of five or more lines, or more than 100 words, should be blocked.
  2. CMOS recommends blocking two or more lines of poetry.
  3. A blocked quotation does not get enclosed in quotation marks.
  4. A blocked quotation must always begin a new line.
  5. Blocked quotations should be indented with the word processor’s indention tool.
  • Page numbers begin in the header of the first page of text with Arabic number 1.
  • Subheadings should be used for longer papers.
  • Titles mentioned in the text, notes, or bibliography are capitalized “headline-style,” meaning first words of titles and subtitles and any important words thereafter should be capitalized.
  • Titles in the text as well as in notes and bibliographies are treated with quotation marks or italics based on the type of work they name.
    • Book and periodical titles (titles of larger works) should be italicized.
    • Article and chapter titles (titles of shorter works) should be enclosed in double quotation marks.
    • The titles of most poems should be enclosed in double quotation marks, but the titles of very long poems should be italicized.
    • Titles of plays should be italicized.
    • Otherwise, take a minimalist approach to capitalization.
  •  Label the first page of your back matter, your comprehensive list of sources, “Bibliography” (for Notes and Bibliography style) or “References” (for Author Date style).
  • Leave two blank lines between “Bibliography” or “References” and your first entry.
  • Leave one blank line between remaining entries.
  • List entries in letter-by-letter alphabetical order according to the first word in each entry.
  • Use “and,” not an ampersand, “&,” for multi-author entries.
  • For two to three authors, write out all names.
  • For four to ten authors, write out all names in the bibliography but only the first author’s name plus “et al.” in notes and parenthetical citations.
  • When a source has no identifiable author, cite it by its title, both on the references page and in shortened form (up to four keywords from that title) in parenthetical citations throughout the text.
  • Write out publishers’ names in full.
  • Do not use access dates unless publication dates are unavailable.
  • If you cannot ascertain the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation “n.d.”
  • Provide DOIs instead of URLs whenever possible.
  • If you cannot name a specific page number when called for, you have other options: section (sec.), equation (eq.), volume (vol.), or note (n.)

 

You can also take a look at Purdue OWL's Citation Style Chart (a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation styles (MLA, APA, & Chicago). 

Books [Chicago]

Book with Author(s):

Footnote or endnote (N):

1. First name Last name, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.

Corresponding bibliographical entry (B):

Last name, First name. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Learn more about citing books with author(s)

 

Book with Author and Editor:  

N:

4. Edward B. Tylor, Researches into the Early Development of Mankind and the Development of Civilization, ed. Paul Bohannan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964), 194.

B:

Tylor, Edward B. Researches into the Early Development of Mankind and the Development of Civilization. Edited by Paul Bohannan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964.

Scroll down to "Book with Author and Editor".

 

Dictionary/Encyclopedia:  

Last Name, First Name. Encyclopedia/Dictionary name, Edition ed., s.v. “Article Title.” Publication City: Publisher Name, Year Published.

Smith, John. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 8th ed., s.v. “Internet.” Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2009.

Learn more about citing dictionaries and encylopedias

Chapter in a Book [Chicago]

Single Chapter in Book with Editor(s), known as an Anthology: 

N:

6. Muriel Harris, “Talk to Me: Engaging Reluctant Writers,” in A Tutor's Guide: Helping Writers One to One, ed. Ben Rafoth (New Hampshire:Heinemann, 2000), 24-34.    

B:

Harris, Muriel. “Talk to Me: Engaging Reluctant Writers.” In A Tutor’s Guide: Helping Writers One to One, edited by Ben Rafoth, 24-34. New Hampshire: Heinemann, 2000.

Scroll down to "Contributions from an edited collection with various authored chapters".

 

Articles [Chicago]

Scholarly Articles:

N:

1. Susan Peck MacDonald, “The Erasure of Language,” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 619.

B:

MacDonald, Susan Peck. “The Erasure of Language.” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 585-625.

Scroll down to "Issue Information".

 

Newspapers:

N:

1. Nisha Deo, “Visiting Professor Lectures on Photographer,” Exponent (West Lafayette, IN), Feb. 13, 2009.

B:

Deo, Nisha. “Visiting Professor Lectures on Photographer.” Exponent (West Lafayette, IN), Feb. 13, 2009.

Scroll down to "Newspapers"

 

Magazines:

N:

1. Emily Macel, “Beijing’s Modern Movement,” Dance Magazine, February 2009, 35.

B:

Macel, Emily. “Beijing’s Modern Movement.” Dance Magazine, February 2009.

Scroll down to "Magazines"

 

Interviews:

N:

1. Carrie Rodriguez, interview by Cuz Frost, Acoustic Café, 88.3 WGWG FM, November 20, 2008.

B:

Rodriguez, Carrie. Acoustic Café. By Cuz Frost. 88.3WGWG FM, November 20, 2008.

Learn more about citing interviews. 

 

Reviews: 

Lastname, First. “Title of Review.” Review of Work Title, by Work Author. Source, Month Day, Year, Section (if applicable). URL.

Dickar, Maryann. "Coming of Age in New Jersey." Review of Teenage New Jersey, 1941-1975, by Kathryn Grover. American Quarterly, March 2000. http://www.jstor.org/stable/30041827.

Scroll down to "Citing Reviews".

Websites [Chicago]

Websites:

N:

7. Richard G. Heck, Jr., “About the Philosophical Gourmet Report” last modified August 5, 2016. http://rgheck.frege.org/philosophy/aboutpgr.php

B:

Heck, Jr., Richard G. “About the Philosophical Gourmet Report” last modified August 5, 2016. http://rgheck.frege.org/philosophy/aboutpgr.php

Scroll down to "Web Page with Known Author and Date". Read other sections for other possible scenarios (such as unknown author or unknown date). 

AV: Film, TV, Online Streaming, Podcast [Chicago]

Films:

N:

1. Joe Versus the Volcano, directed by John Patrick Shanley (1990; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2002), DVD.

B:

Shanley, John Patrick, dir. Joe Versus the Volcano. 1990; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2002. DVD.

Scroll down to "DVD". 

 

Television:

N:

Title of Work, episode number, “Episode Title,” directed/written/performed by Firstname Lastname, aired Month day, year, on Network Name, URL. 

B:

Lastname, Firstname, dir. Title of Work. Season number, episode number, “Episode Title.” Aired Month day, year, on Network Name. URL.

Learn more about citing audiovisual recordings

 

Online Streaming Platforms - Netflix, Hulu, Google Play:  

Director’s Last name, First name, dir. Movie Title. Production Company, Year of release. URL.

Learn more about citing Netflix (as an example of a streaming platform). 

 

Podcasts:

N:

1. Sean Cole and Ira Glass, “622: Who You Gonna Call?,” August 4, 2017, in This American Life, produced by WBEZ, podcast, MP3 audio, 1:00:27, accessed October 31, 2017, https://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/622/who-you-gonna-call.

B:

Cole, Sean and Ira Glass. “622: Who You Gonna Call?.” Produced by WBEZ. This American Life. August 4, 2017. Podcast, MP3 audio, 1:00:27. accessed October 31, 2017. https://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/622/who-you-gonna-call.

Scroll down to "Podcast"

Video Games [Chicago]

Video Games:

Angry Birds. iOS. Developed by Rovio Entertainment. Chillingo/Clickgamer, Rovio Entertainment, 2009. 

CMOS does not provide exact guidelines for citing video games. Use a modified version of the same format used for citing films.

Microfilm [Chicago]

Microfilm: 

N: 

3. Beatrice Farwell, French Popular Lithographic Imagery, 1815–1870, vol. 12, in Lithography in Art and Commerce (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997), text-fiche, p. 67, 3C12.

B:

Farwell, Beatrice. French Popular Lithographic Imagery, 1815–1870, vol. 12. In Lithography in Art and Commerce. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997. Text-fiche, p. 67, 3C12.

Learn more about citing microfilm/microfiche.

Social Media [Chicago]

Social Media:

Tweet:

Kruszelnicki, Karl (@DoctorKarl). 2017. "Dr Karl Twitter post." Twitter, February 19, 2017, 9:34 a.m. https://twitter.com/DoctorKarl.

 

YouTube Video:

NRK. 2007. "Medieval Helpdesk with English Subtitles." Uploaded on February 26, 2007. YouTube video, 2:44 min. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pQHX-SjgQvQ.

Setrakian, Lara. 2017. "3 Ways to Fix a Broken News Industry." Uploaded in January, 2017. Ted Talks TEDNYC video, 8:37 min. https://www.ted.com/talks/lara_setrakian_3_ways_to_fix_a_ broken_news_industry#t-521404.

 

Comment:

Richard Landes, December 21, 2009, comment on Paul Halsall, "Who Is to Blame in the Israel Palestine Debate," English Eclectic (blog), December 21, 2009, http://englisheclectic.blogspot.ca/.

Refer to "Example 2: Blog Comment" for more information.

 

Learn more about citing social media. Read "Examples" column for more information. 

Lecture Notes [Chicago]

Lectures and Papers Presented at Meetings:

N:

1. Paul Hanstedt, “This is Your Brain on Writing: The Implications of James Zull’s The Art of Changing the Brain for the Writing Classroom” (presentation, Annual Convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication, San Francisco, CA, March 12, 2009).

B:

Hanstedt, Paul. “This is Your Brain on Writing: The Implications of James Zull’s The Art of Changing the Brain for the Writing Classroom.” Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication, San Francisco, CA, March 2009.

Learn more about citing lectures and presentations