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Research Guides

CIN240: Gross Out! The Body in Comedy

General Guidelines [MLA]

General Guidelines (Source: Purdue OWL) 

  • Type your paper on a computer and print it out on standard, white 8.5 x 11-inch paper.
  • Double-space the text of your paper, and use a legible font (e.g. Times New Roman). Whatever font you choose, MLA recommends that the regular and italics type styles contrast enough that they are recognizable one from another. The font size should be 12 pt.
  • Leave only one space after periods or other punctuation marks (unless otherwise instructed by your instructor).
  • Set the margins of your document to 1 inch on all sides.
  • Indent the first line of paragraphs one half-inch from the left margin. MLA recommends that you use the Tab key as opposed to pushing the Space Bar five times.
  • Create a header that numbers all pages consecutively in the upper right-hand corner, one-half inch from the top and flush with the right margin. (Note: Your instructor may ask that you omit the number on your first page. Always follow your instructor's guidelines.)
  • Use italics throughout your essay for the titles of longer works and, only when absolutely necessary, providing emphasis.
  • If you have any endnotes, include them on a separate page before your Works Cited page. Entitle the section Notes (centered, unformatted).

For more information, please refer to Purdue OWL's website

You can also take a look at Purdue OWL's Citation Style Chart (a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation styles (MLA, APA, & Chicago). 

When Information is Missing

Please take a look at Columbia College's guide on dealing with MLA when you are missing information 

 
For example there are often columns that do not have authors: 
 

Works Cited

"Pictures: BETTE DAVIS CALLS OFF FEUD WITH WB." Variety (Archive: 1905-2000), vol. 136, no. 8, Nov 01, 1939, p. 4. ProQuest, http://myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/docview/1475976279?accountid=14771.

In-text citation would be ("Pictures: Bette Davis" 4)

Books [MLA Style]

Book with Single Author: 

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date.  
Gleick, James. Chaos: Making a New Science. Penguin, 1987.
​For more details, visit Purdue Owl's MLA Works Cited Page: Books and scroll down to "Basic book format" heading. 
 

Book with Multiple Authors: 

Two Authors

"When a book has multiple authors, order the authors in the same way they are presented in the book. The first given name appears in last name, first name format; subsequent author names appear in first name last name format." (Purdue Owl - MLA Works Cited Page: Books)
Last Name, First Name, and First Name Last Name.  Title of Book, edition (if applicable). City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date.  
Bordwell, David, and Kristin Thompson. Film Art: An Introduction. 9th ed, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2010.

More than Two Authors 

"If there are three or more authors, list only the first author followed by the phrase et al. (Latin for "and others") in place of the subsequent authors' names. (Note that there is a period after “al” in “et al.” Also note that there is never a period after the “et” in “et al.”)." (Purdue Owl - MLA Works Cited Page: Books)
Last Name, First Name, et al.  Title of Book, edition (if applicable). City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date.  
Wysocki, Anne Frances, et al. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition. Utah State UP, 2004.
​For more details, visit Purdue Owl's MLA Works Cited Page: Books and scroll down to "Book with More Than One Author" heading. 
 

Book with Editor(s): 

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date.  
Biltereyst, Daniël, and Roel Vande Winkel, editors. Silencing Cinema: Film Censorship around the World. Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
​For more details, visit Purdue Owl's MLA Works Cited Page: Books and scroll down to "Anthology or Collection (e.g. Collection of Essays)" heading. 
 

Dictionary / Encyclopedia 

Print Book

"Headword of the entry cited." Title of the source, Edition (if applicable), Date the dictionary or thesaurus was published or revised.  
"Ideology." The American Heritage Dictionary, 3rd ed., 1997.

Website 

"Headword of the entry cited." Title of the website. Date the dictionary or thesaurus was published, posted, or revised.  
Full URL of webpage. (Date you accessed the online resource).
"Ideology." The American Heritage Dictionary, 5th ed., 2018. ahdictionary.com/word/search.html?q=ideology. Accessed 15 Oct. 2018.​
Learn more from Purdue OWL's MLA Works Cited Page: Books by scrolling down to "Article in a Reference Book (e.g. Encyclopedias, Dictionaries)"

Chapter in a Book [MLA Style]

Single Chapter in Book with Editor(s), known as an Anthology:  

Last name, First name. "Title of Essay / Chapter." Title of Collection / Book, edited by Editor's Name(s), Publisher,  

Year, Page range of entry. 

Black, Gregory D. “The Legion of Decency and the Movies.” Silencing Cinema: Film Censorship around the World, edited by Daniël Biltereyst

and Roel Vande Winkel, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, pp. 241–54.

​For more details, visit Purdue Owl's MLA Works Cited Page: Books page and scroll down to "A Work in an Anthology, Reference, or Collection" heading. 

Articles [MLA Style] Newspaper, Journal, Magazine, Film Review, Interview

Scholarly Articles:  

  • Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Journal, Volume, Issue, Year, pages. 

  • Scruton, Roger. "The eclipse of listening". The New Criterion, vol.15, no. 3, 1996, pp. 5-13.

  • For more details, visit Purdue OWL's Reference List page and scroll down to "Article in Journal Paginated by Issue" heading. 

 

Newspapers: 

  • Last name, First name. "Article Title". Newspaper title, date, page number. 

  • Brubaker, Bill. "New Health Center Targets County's Uninsured Patients." Washington Post, 24 May 2007,  

p. LZ01. 

  • For more details, visit Purdue OWL's Reference List page and scroll down to "Article in a Newspaper" heading. 

 

Magazines: 

  • Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Periodical, Volume (vol.), Issue (no.), Day Month Year, pages.

  •  

Filmer, Fay. “PICTURE SHOW Gossip." Picture Show, vol. 51, no. 1352, 16 Oct. 1948, pp. 3-4.

  • Poniewozik, James. "TV Makes a Too-Close Call." Time, 20 Nov. 2000, pp. 70-71.  [no volume or issue available]

  •  

  • For more details, visit Purdue OWL's Reference List page and scroll down to "Article in a Magazine" heading. 

 

Film Review: 

  • Review Author. "Title of Review (if there is one)." Review of Performance Title, by Author/Director/Artist. Title of Periodical, 

    • Day Month Year, page. 

  • Seitz, Matt Zoller. "Life in the Sprawling Suburbs, If You Can Really Call It Living." Review of Radiant City, directed by Gary Burns and Jim

    • Brown. New York Times, 30 May 2007, p. E1.

  •  

  • For more details, visit Purdue OWL's MLA Works Cited: Other Common Sources page and scroll down to "A Review" heading. 

 

Interviews: 

  • Last name, First name. Interview with [Interviewee's name]. Publication, journal volume, journal issue, year, page number.

  • Gaitskill, Mary. Interview with Charles Bock. Mississippi Review, vol. 27, no. 3, 1999, pp. 129-50. 

  • For more details, visit Purdue OWL's MLA Works Cited: Other Common Sources page and scroll down to "An Interview" heading. 

Advertisement [MLA Style]

Print Ads

To cite an advertisement in a print magazine, follow the MLA template of core elements. Provide the title of the advertisement or a description in place of a title. Then provide the name of the magazine in the “Title of container” slot, followed by the date of the issue and the page number on which the advertisement appears:

Advertisement for Head and Shoulders. Newsweek, 17 Mar. 2008, p. 2.

Online Ads

To cite a digital advertisement, provide the URL in place of a page number. If the advertisement is a pop-up ad, provide this information in the optional-element slot at the end of the entry.

“Get the Best of The New Yorker.” The New Yorker, 10 Jan. 2017, www.newyorker.com. Pop-up ad.

Websites [MLA Style]

Websites 

  • The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2008,  

owl.english.purdue.edu/owl. Accessed 23 Apr. 2008. 

  • Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory. Purdue U, 28 Nov. 2003, www.cla.purdue.edu/english/theory/. Accessed 10

    • May 2006.

  •  

  • For more details, visit Purdue OWL's MLA Works Cited: Electronic Sources (Web Publications) page and scroll down to "Citing an Entire Website" heading. 

AV / Media [MLA Style] Film, TV, Online Streaming, Podcast

 Films:  

  • Last name, First name, position/role. Movie Title. Studio/Production Company, Year. 

  • Lucas, George, director. Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. Twentieth Century Fox, 1977. 

  • For more details, visit Purdue OWL's MLA Works Cited: Other Common Sources page and scroll down to "Film or Movies" heading. 

  •  

Television: 

  • "Episode title." Show/Program title. Network, Location, date. 

  • "The Blessing Way." The X-Files. Fox, WXIA, Atlanta, 19 Jul. 1998. 

Online Streaming Platforms - Netflix, Hulu, Google Play:  

  • "Episode title." Show title, season, episode number, Network title, date. Year. Platform, platform URL. 

  • “94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, season 2, episode 21, NBC, 29 Apr. 2010. Netflix, www.netflix.com/watch/70152031.

 

Podcast:  

  • "Episode title". Podcast name. Producer, date, URL. 

  • “Best of Not My Job Musicians.” Wait Wait…Don’t Tell Me! from NPR, 4 June 2016,  

Video Games [MLA Style]

Video Games 

  • Game Title. Platform, Producer, Year. 

  • Pac-Man. Windows PC version, Namco Networks, 2009.

 

Visit ​MLA's online guide "How to Cite a Videogame" for more details. 

 

Microfilm [MLA Style]

Microfilm:

Author Last Name, Author First Name. "Article Title."  Publication title i..e. Magazine, Newpaper. Original publication  date for the Article: Page number. Medium. Collection Title, Volume number (collection year of Microform): Specific microform information (such as reel, fiche, number, etc.) 

 

Sutherlin, Robert N. “Organize Your Stock Associations.” Rocky Mountain Husbandman 5 June 1879:

 2. Microform. Work Progress Administration for the Livestock Industry, 36 (1942): Reel 1, Microfilm 250.  

Check out Yale Center for Teaching and Learning's website: "Citing Miscellanous Sources"  Microfilm: Microfilm and Microfiche  

Social Media [MLA Style]

Social Media:

Tweet

  • Twitter handle. "Tweet." Twitter, date and time of posting., URL 

  • @tombrokaw. "SC demonstrated why all the debates are the engines of this campaign." Twitter, 22 Jan.  

2012, 3:06 a.m., twitter.com/tombrokaw/status/160996868971704320. 

YouTube Video

  • "Video title." Platform/YouTube, uploaded by [Uploader's Username], date posted, URL. date accessed. 

  •  “8 Hot Dog Gadgets put to the Test.” YouTube, uploaded by Crazy Russian Hacker, 6 June 2016,  

Comment on Website or Online Article:

  • Username/Author. Comment on "Article or website title." Publisher's name, date, time, URL. 

  • Not Omniscent Enough. Comment on "Flight Attendant Tells Passenger to ‘Shut Up’ After Argument After  

Pasta." ABC News, 9 Jun 2016, 4:00 p.m., abcnews.go.com/US/flight-attendant-tells-passenger-shut-argument-pasta/story?id=39704050. 

 

Lecture Notes [MLA Style]

Lecture Notes:  

  • Last name, First name. "Title of the Speech." Title of the conference or meeting, title of the organization, date, venue, location. 

  • Stein, Bob. “Reading and Writing in the Digital Era.” Discovering Digital Dimensions, Computers and  

Writing Conference, 23 May 2003, Union Club Hotel, West Lafayette, IN. Keynote Address. 

  • For more details, visit Purdue OWL's MLA Works Cited: Other Common Sources page and scroll down to "Speeches, Lectures, or Other Oral Presentations (including Conference Presentations)" heading. 

Correspondence

 

  • Author’s LastName, Author’s FirstName.
  • Letter to the author.
  • Date of Letter.
  • The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research papers requires that you put “TS.” After the date of the letter if it is a typed letter. In text, you should differentiate between the letters, if you have numerous untitled letters from the same author. Although the MLA has no guidelines for this, we suggest including the date in the sentence referring to the letter. For example: In the letter dated 14 December 2010, he writes, “…it is cold outside” (Smith).