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Research Guides

Business Design

Library resources for design thinking, data analysis and research.

Introduction to APA

APA style is the preferred citation format for social sciences, including business and management.  The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association provides guidelines for when and how to properly cite your sources.

APA style includes two key elements:

  • In-text citations: credit your sources for specific ideas that you use.
  • Reference list (bibliography): allow other readers to find those sources themselves.

You must include both in-text citations and a final reference list in your papers.

Citation Examples

The following sources offer sample citations in APA style.

Citation Management Software

Citation management software makes it easier to keep track of your sources and to format your citations. 

U of T subscribes to RefWorks, a database that lets you add references you find in the library catalogue and in article databases.  RefWorks also works with Microsoft Word to allow you to format your in-text citations and reference list more easily.

You can also use a number of free citation management services, such as Zotero. This citation management guide can help you compare the various free and paid services available, including U of T price discounts. 

No citation management software is perfect - for example, it's easier to add books from the library catalogue to RefWorks, but it's easier to add blogs or websites to Zotero - and no software can tell you how and when to cite your sources.  However, citation management software can save you valuable time formatting and organizing your research.