1. Books & Scores (one author or composer)
The normal citation information for books and scores with one author or composer includes their name, title of the book, and publication information (see CMS 14.75). If the book or score is an electronic download, include this information to indicate you consulted a format other than print (CMS 14.166). When citing an online book, include the URL or DOI (digital object identifier) at the end of the citation (CMS 14.167).
|Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics, 2003.|
|Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics, 2007. Kindle edition.|
|Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics, 2008. PDF e-book.|
|Kidger, David M. Adrian Willaert: A Guide to Research. New York: Routledge, 2005.|
|Martin du Gard, Roger. Lieutenant-Colonel de Maumort. Translated by Luc Brébion and|
|Timothy Crouse. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000.|
|Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Le nozze di Figaro. Kassel: Barenreiter, 1999.|
|Walkinshaw, Stuart Max. Garden City Waltzes. St. Catharines, ON: M. Walkinshaw, 1893.|
|Zelenka, Johann Dismas. Five Capriccios. Munich: Musikproduktion Höflich, 2013.|
2. Books with two to ten authors or editors (CMS 14.76)
|Grimes, Nicole, Siobhan Donovan, and Wolfgang Marx, eds. Rethinking Hanslick: Music, Formalism,|
|and Expression. Suffolk, UK: Boydell & Brewer, 2013.|
|Hutcheon, Linda, and Michael Hutcheon. Opera: the Art of Dying. Cambridge, MA: Harvard|
|University Press, 2004.|
3. Books with more than ten authors or editors (CMS 14.76)
The pattern for books with up to ten authors or editors is to cite them all in the bibliography. This is very rare for music-related publications. If there are more than ten, list the first seven authors followed by the latin "et al" to let the reader know there are more contributors. (Note that this is different than in the footnote, which uses "et al" after the first author entry.)
|Goodman, Alice. "Program Note." In Nixon in China, by John Adams, iv-v. New York: Boosey|
|Harris, Ellen. "Harmonic Patterns in Handel's Operas." In Eighteenth-Century Music in Theory and|
|Practice, edited by Mary Ann Parker, 77-118. Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon Press, 1994.|
|Weelkes, Thomas. "As Vesta Was." In Norton Anthology of Western Music. 6th ed., vol. 1, edited by|
|J. Peter Burkholder and Claude V. Palisca, 342-51. New York: W. W. Norton, 2010.|
|Zohn, Steven. Introduction to Twelve Trios, by Georg Philipp Telemann, ix-xvii. Edited by Steven Zohn.|
|Madison, WI: A-R Editions, 2000.|
1. An article from a print journal:
The normal citation order for a journal article with one author is:
Last name, first name. "Article Title." Journal Title volume, no. _ (year): pages. (See: CMS 14.176)
|Chong, Nicholas J. "Music for the Last Supper: the Dramatic Significance of Mozart's Musical|
|Quotations in the Tafelmusik of Don Giovanni." Current Musicology 92 (2011): 7-52.|
|Zakresky, Kevin. "Opera from the Playground: Benjamin Britten's Roles for Children's Voices."|
|Journal of Singing 68, no. 5 (2012): 511-19.|
2. An article with two (or more) authors from a print journal:
(See: CMS 14.76)
|Daub, Adrian, and Elisabeth Bronfen. "Broomhilda Unchained: Tarantino's Wagner." The Wagner|
|Journal 9, no. 2 (2015): 55-67.|
3. An online article with an electronic identifier (e.g. URL or DOI):
When accessing an article electronically you need to include a URL or DOI (Digital Object Identifier). This information comes after the regular citation information outlined above. (CMS 14.184)
|Roccor, Bettina. "Heavy Metal: Forces of Unification and Fragmentation within a Musical Subculture."|
|The World of Music 42, no. 1 (2000): 83-94. http://www.jstor.org/stable/41699315.|
|Yang, Mina. "Für Elise, circa 2000: Postmodern readings of Beethoven in popular context." Popular|
|Music and Society 29, no. 1 (2006): 1-15. doi:10.1080/03007760500142613.|
4. An article from a newspaper or popular magazine:
When formally citing a newspaper or popular magazine, include the URL if accessing it online. If no author is credited, begin the citation with the article title.
Examples: (see CMS 14.203)
|"Air Canada Pilot Diverts Toronto Flight to Save Dog." Toronto Star, September 16, 2015.|
|Accessed September 17, 2015. http://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2015/09/16|
|Mendelssohn, Daniel. "But Enough about Me." New Yorker, January 25, 2010.|
|Stolberg, Shery Gay, and Robert Pear. "Wary Centrists Posting Challenge in Health Care Vote."|
|New York Times, February 27, 2010. Accessed March 2, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010
1. An article from a dictionary or encyclopedia, in print:
For reference works with substantial, authored entries it is appropriate to cite the entries by their author, much like contributions to a multi-author book. (See CMS 14.248 and CMS 14.112) The normal citation order is:
Last name, first name. "Article Title." In Title, edited by first_name last_name, page numbers. City: Publisher, year.
|Fallows, Colin. "Art and Art Schools." In Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World vol. 1,|
|edited by John Shepherd et al, 152-57. London: Continuum, 2003.|
|McClymonds, Marita P., and Daniel Heartz. "Opera Seria." In The New Grove Dictionary of Music and|
|Musicians vol. 18, edited by Stanley Sadie, 485-93. New York: Grove's Dictionaries, 2001.|
2. If the resource is online, then cite as follows:
Last name, first name. "Article Title." In Title of source. Publisher, year-. Access date. DOI (Digital Object Identifier) or URL.
|Walsh, Stephen. "Stravinsky, Igor (Fyodorovich)." In Grove Music Online. Oxford University Press,|
|2007-. Accessed September 16, 2015. http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.myaccess.library|
***Note that in some cases, as with well-known sources like Grove Music Online, it may be appropriate to shorten particularly unwieldly URLs to after the first forward slash (i.e. the slash that follows a domain extension such as .com). (See CMS 14.203)
|Walsh, Stephen. "Stravinsky, Igor (Fyodorovich)." In Grove Music Online. Oxford University Press,|
|2007-. Accessed September 16, 2015. http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/.|
1. Recordings on a physical medium like CDs, DVDs, etc.
Recordings are often listed in a separate discography rather than in a bibliography. If the conductor or performer is the focus of the recording rather than the composer, then they may be listed first, as appropriate.
Audio Examples: (See CMS 14.276)
|Aide, William. The Lyric Element. Arbordisc UTSS0503, 2005, compact disc.|
|Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Don Giovanni. Orchestra and Chorus of the Royal Opera House, Covent|
|Garden. Sir Colin Davis. With Ingvar Wixell, Luigi Roni, Martina Arroyo, Stuart Burrows, Kiri Te|
|Kanawa, et al. Recorded May 1973. Philips 422 541-2, 1991, 3 compact discs.|
|Pink Floyd. Atom Heart Mother. Capitol CDP 7 46381 2, 1990, compact disc. Originally released|
Citations for videos will vary according to the nature of the material and should include any facts relevant to identifying the item. Note that indexed scenes are treated as chapters and cited by title or by number.
Video Examples: (See CMS 14.279)
|Cleese, John, et al. "Commentaries." Disc 2. Monty Python and the Holy Grail, special ed.|
|DVD. Directed by Terry Gilliam and Terry Jones. Culver City, CA: Columbia Tristar|
|Home Entertainment, 2001.|
|Handel, George Frideric. Admeto: re di tessaglia. Händelfestspielorchester Halle, Howard Arman.|
|With Matthias Rexroth, et al. Leipzig: Arthaus Musik, 2006. 2 DVDs. 196 min.|
2. Online audio & video
Citations of online streaming media that duplicates content of previously recorded material should include documentation of that performance as outlined above. If no date is available, include the date you accessed the material. For material that is posted directly to the Internet, gather the creator, title, and other information directly from the material. In both cases, include information about the source type and length. It is never enough to only include a URL or file name. (See CMS 14.280)
|Braid, David. "David Braid Solo Piano 2011." YouTube video, 5:58. June 11, 2012.|
|Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Don Giovanni. Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, Daniel Barenboim.|
|With Nicholas Carthy, Lella Cuberli, Ferruccio Furlanetto, Uwe Heilmann, Waltraud Meier, Michele|
|Pertusi, et al. Erato. Accessed September 18, 2015. http://utoronto.naxosmusiclibrary.com|
|Nielsen, Wendy. Forgotten Songs, Forgotten Loves. With Robert Kortgaard, piano. Marquis, 2001.|
|Wagner, Richard. Tristan und Isolde. Bayreuth Festival Orchestra and Chorus, Peter Schneider.|
|With Robert Dean Smith, et al. Recorded August 9, 2009. Opus Arte, 2010. 254 min.|
1. Theses and Dissertations:
Theses and dissertations are treated similar to books except that the title is in quotation marks rather than italics, and citations include information on the kind of thesis and academic institution. Include a URL for documents consulted online. If you accessed the work through a commercial database like Proquest Dissertations, include this information in the citation along with an identification number if it has one (see CMS 14.224).
|Carpenter, Alexander. "Erwartung and the Scene of Psychoanalysis: Interpreting Schoenberg's|
|Monodrama as a Freudian Case Study." PhD diss., University of Toronto, 2004.|
|Chatterjee, Piya. "The Art of Eating Ice-cream." MFA thesis, University of California, Riverside,|
|2015. Proquest Dissertations (1588298).|
|Neufeldt, Timothy. "The Social and Political Aspects of the Pastoral Mode in Musico-Dramatic|
|Works, London, 1695-1728." PhD diss., University of Toronto, 2006. ProQuest|
|Sarkar, Mihir. "World Music Technology: Culturally Sensitive Strategies for Automatic Music|
|Prediction." PhD diss., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2012. http://hdl.handle.net|
The term "manuscript" generally refers to various types of unpublished documents. In music-related studies, this is often either an author's text, possibly on its way to being published, or a historical document like the Old Hall Manuscript. For documents of the former type, including books that are not under contract, follow CMS 14.225. Entries begin with the author's name. Titles of works appear in quotation marks and include the words "Unpublished manuscript" along with the date of the version, if available. Conclude with an indication of the format.
|MacLean, Jan. "Circulation Policies and Procedures." Unpublished manuscript, last modified|
|September 10, 2015. Microsoft Word file.|
If the manuscript is under contract to be published but the publication date is not yet known, use "forthcoming" in place of the date. Page numbers should be given if known. (See: CMS 14.153)
|Spinoza, Walter Erlkönig. "Magical Music and Mages in Musicals." In Spurious Book Name,|
|edited by Ellen Editor. Place: Publisher, forthcoming.|
|Zapata, Giovanni Luigi da. Palestrina Meets Facetious Modernism. Place: Publisher,|
For older, historical manuscripts, full identification includes the title and date of the item, name of the collection, series title (if it has one) and name of the depository. Works can either be cited in their entirety or by individual item and author, as appropriate. If the manuscript collection is consulted online, include the URL or DOI (digital object identifier) as well. See CMS 14.232 and subsequent entries for more information.
|Aylesford Manuscripts. Newman Flower Collection. Manchester Central Library.|
|Handel, George Frideric. "Il pastor fido." MS 130 Hd4 v.234. Alyesford Manuscripts,|
|Newman Flower Collection. Manchester Central Library.|
|Offenbach, Jacques. "La vie parisienne." MS 44 Of2v. Juilliard Manuscript Collection.|
|The Old Hall Manuscript, ca. 1410-1420. Add MS 57950. British Library Digitised|
In most instances, references to webpages should be made to the host institution/organization/author's website, rather than individual pages (see CMS 14.243, 14.244). For original content from online sources that does not duplicate formally published documents, include as much of the following content as possible: author, title or description of the page, sponsor/owner of site, and a URL. A publication date, revision date and access date are also helpful. Some editorial discretion may be required.(CMS 14.245)
|Metropolitan Opera. "Educator Guide: Rigoletto." The Metropolitan Opera. Accessed|
|September 21,2015. http://www.metopera.org/Discover/Education/Educator-Guides|
|Microsoft Corporation. “WD2000: Visual Basic Macro to Assign Clipboard Text to a String|
|Variable.” Revision 1.3. Microsoft Help and Support. Last modified November 23, 2006.|
|Robbins, Rachel. "About the TSYO." Toronto Symphony Orchestra. Accessed September 22,|
Blogs (or, "weblogs") now generally consist of a few standard components, including titles, dated entries, and comments. Citing blog entries is therefore similar to citing articles in journals. Include the URL (see CMS 14.243, 14.246). Chicago style suggests that blog entries generally be relegated to notes rather than bibliographies, with frequently cited blogs listed under the blog heading itself. Substantive blog entries would presumably follow journal citation format.
|Oh, Gregory. Open Ears (blog). http://openears.ca/blog.|
|Reynolds, Christopher. "Growing the Database of Women Songwriters, 1890-1930."|
|Musicology Now (blog), American Musicological Society. September 21, 2015.|
Style Guides & Citation Management
A citation guide created by the Writing Centre from the University of Toronto, which includes detailed examples from various citation styles.
A manual on how to cite references and compile a bibliography. The CMS also covers consistency of style in capitalization, punctuation, spelling, documentation, and other aspects of writing essays and manuscripts. It also covers information on grammar and usage, including the grammatical structures of English, how to put words and phrases together to achieve clarity, a glossary of troublesome expressions, guidance on bias-free language, and guidance on numerous other writing-related topics.
Refworks is a web-based citation management software that will help you to collect your research and format bibliographies.
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