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PSYD22: Socialization Processes

Workshop Materials

Workshop FAQs

Searching for Literature

Q: Is Wikipedia ok to use when getting started?
A: Wikipedia is a great tool for doing background research and getting a broad overview of your topic; you can also check the References section of a Wikipedia entry for relevant studies (but double-check to make sure that they're peer-reviewed, empirical articles). If you find a good article, you could even try creating a "Title" search in PsycINFO to a) see if it's indexed in the database, and if so, b) go to its Complete Reference page to look for relevant Subject Headings:

Step 1: Conduct a 'Title' search in PsycINFO.

snapshot of PsycINFO title search

Step 2: If the article is available in PsycINFO, check its 'Complete Reference' page for relevant Subject Headings; you can then use these terms to create a search strategy for similar articles.

snapshot of PsycINFO complete reference lookup

 

Q: What is the use of "AND" and "OR" in a search?
A: "AND" is used to combine distinct concepts in a search. It narrows your search by pulling in only articles where both search terms are present (e.g. mindfulness AND depression). "OR" is used to combine synonyms or related concepts in a search. It will broaden your search to pull in articles which use different terminology around a shared concept (e.g. happiness OR well being OR life satisfaction).

This video from McMaster Libraries provides an overview of each, as well as the third Boolean Operator "NOT."

 

Q: Is there an easier way to use the keywords instead of AND/OR?
A: Databases like PsycINFO rely on combining concepts using the AND/OR functions, so this is a necessary step when developing your search.

 

Q: How do I broaden my topic/what do I do if I get too few results?
A: There's a few things you can try to increase your number of results:

  • Remove AND'ed concepts from your search
  • OR in additional keywords or subject headings for your related concepts/synonyms
  • Check for broader and related terms in your subject heading's hierarchy list

 

Q: How do I narrow down a topic/what do I do if I get too many results?
A: There's a few things you can try to decrease your number of results:

  • Remove OR'ed concepts from your search
  • AND in additional keywords or subject headings
  • Check for more specific narrower terms in your subject heading's hierarchy list
  • Apply limits to focus your results (e.g. peer-reviewed, empirical journal articles)

 

Q: What to do if I cannot find a full article using library resources?
A: Feel free to email me for assistance or stop by the Information and Reference Desk in the Library. If UofT doesn't have the article, we can request it free of charge from another library.