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CLA230H5 UTM Introduction to Greek History

A guide to support student assignments.

Primary Sources

Classics uses a specialized, precise method of citing ancient sources. 

Literary Primary Sources

The proper format for citing classical texts is:

For prose: Author, Title Book.Chapter.Section  

e.g. Arrian, Campaigns of Alexander 1.5.3

For poetry: Author, Title Book(if applicable).line number      

e.g. Homer, Iliad 18.141-143; Sophocles, Antigone 904-922

You must give the precise reference to the original literary text (book number, chapter number, section/line number), NOT just a page reference to your modern translation.   

If an author wrote only one work, you may omit the name of the work;

e.g. Herodotus 9.1, rather than Herodotus, Histories 9.1

Note: If you are including a parenthetical citation at the end of a sentence, e.g. (Homer, Odyssey 1.1-3), the period always follows the citation.


Visual Primary Sources

The proper format for citing classical artworks is:

Artists’ name . Title of work. Date of composition BCE/CE (if unknown use n.d.). Original findspot (if known), now Current museum location or collection, (if known), city of collection or museum. Inventory or Accession number.

You must also cite your resource:


Name of database or Web site. Web. Date of access.


Book as above.


Unknown. Head of Homer, c. first century BCE or first century CE.  Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Inv. 04.13.  Photo: © 2007 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Unknown. Spinario, c. second century BCE.  From Priene, now Staatliche Museum, Berlin. Inv. 8626.  Photo: after Higgins (1967) 120, pl. 58A

Chicago Manual of Style

Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS)

Historians use the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) to acknowledge sources.

A new 17th edition has recently been published with significant changes, you should continue to use the 16th edition.

The links below will load the 17th  you need to select the 16th and select CMOS16 at top of the page.


Plagiarism is a serious offense, whether committed intentionally or not.   

See the following links for definitions of plagiarism and how you can avoid it:



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