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Foundations and Current Issues in IR/HR (IRE 2001)

This subject guide is meant to assist students, particularly those enrolled in IRE 2001, with research papers and assignments.

Books - Technology/Gig Economy/Sharing Economy

Selected Books - Technology and The Future of Work

Scholarly, Newspaper, Magazine Articles & Reports

  See the Tumblr: work&labour news&research for the latest on Robots, AIor Future 

Canada. Policy Horizons, June 20, 1019. The Future of Work: Five Game Changers.

World Bank, 2019. World Development Report 2019: The Changing Nature of Work. Washington, DC: World Bank.

C.D. Howe Institute, March 16, 2017: “Future Shock? The Impact of Automation on Canada’s Labour Market” (28 pages, PDF)

The Conference Board of Canada, March 6, 2017: “The Conference Board Human Capital in Review™: Future of Work (Vol. 1, No. 1, 2017)” (15 pages, PDF). To view this publication, University of Toronto students, faculty and staff must first create an e-Library account here using your  ”" or “” email address and follow the registration instructions.

World Economic Forum, January 18, 2016: “The Future of Jobs”

Pew Research Center, August 2014: “AI, Robotics, and the Future of Jobs,” by Aaron Smith and Janna Anderson

Harvard, Shorenstein Centre, Journalist's Resource, February 17, 2015: "Computerization, atomization, crowdsourcing and the new economics of employment: What is the future of work when micro-tasks are farmed out to disparate people and groups globally? And how does this change the economic analysis?"

PewResearch, December 30, 2014: “Technology’s Impact on Workers,” by Kristen Purcell and Lee Rainie (pdf 18 p.)

MIT Initiative on the Digital Economy: About ; Researchers & videos ; Digital community 

Mapping the Future: the Future of Work, by Andrew MacAfee, Principal Research Scientist for the Initiative on the Digital Economy at the MIT Sloan School of Management, on World Economic Forum, November 2014.

NYRB, April 2, 2015: "How Robots & Algorithms Are Taking Over," Sue Halpern

NYRB, November 20, 2014:  “The Creepy New Wave of the Internet,” Sue Halpern 

How Globalization and Technology Teamed Up to Crush Middle-Class Workers

The Chronicle of Higher Education, March 24, 2013: Robots Aren’t the Problem: It’s Us  by Richard Florida

The Economist, November 2, 2013: Workers’ share of national income: Labour pains: All around the world, labour is losing out to capital

The Future of Employment: How Susceptible are Jobs to Computerization? by Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael A. Osborne, September 17, 2013 (72 pages, PDF)

Feldmann, H. (2013). Technological unemployment in industrial countries. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 23(5), 1099-1126.

Frey, C.B. & Osborne, M.A. (2013). The Future of Employment: How Susceptible Are Jobs to Computerisation?  Oxford University (72 pages, PDF)

Rosholm, M., Roed, M. & Schone, Pal (2013). Are new work practices and new technologies biased against immigrant workers? International Journal of Manpower, 34(8), 995-1014.

Okazawa, R. (2013). Skill-biased technical change, educational choice, and labor market polarization: The U.S. versus Europe. The Journal of Economic Inequality, 11(3), 321-342.

Katselidis, I., Vouldis, A., & Michaelides, P. G. (2011). Sumner Slichter and Emil Lederer on technological unemployment. International Journal of Social Economics, 38(6), 537-556.

Card, D. & DiNardo, J.E. (2002). Skill‐biased technological change and rising wage inequality: some problems and puzzles. Journal of Labor Economics, 20(4), 733-783.