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Research Guides

Reading, Writing and Publishing After You Leave U of T

Supports the course of the same name in the Graduate Professional Skills Program.

Retaining Copyright in Your Work


Without copyright ownership, you may not be able to e-mail your own work to students and colleagues, post it online to your personal or academic website, self-archive it in an institutional or subject repository (including TSpace) or publish sections of it in future compilations.

Copyright owners (you or someone you have transferrred copyright to) have economic rights to publish, reproduce, exhibit or perform a work. As the owner of your work, you can sell, assign, license or waive all, some or none of the rights associated with copyright.


Journals typically have authors sign a publication agreement, a legally binding contract that often requires full copyright ownership transfer to the journal. Read these agreements carefully and amend their terms if needed to transfer only the rights needed to publish your work. Usually this will mean a simple statement of permission to publish vs. a full transfer of copyright.

Explore the links below to learn more about your rights as an author:

Creative Commons Licenses

Creative Commons licenses give everyone from individual creators to large companies and institutions a simple, standardized way to grant copyright permissions to their creative work. 

Creative Commons licenses helps creators retain copyright and get credit for their work while allowing others to copy, distribute, and make some uses of their work — at least non-commercially. Creators can also choose to grant additional permissions for use of their work, for example, to allow derivative works or commercial use. If derivative works are allowed, users may be required to make the new work available under the same license terms (ShareAlike).

Creative Commons licenses require licensees to get permission to do any of the things with a work that the law reserves exclusively to a licensor and that the license does not expressly allow. Licensees must credit the licensor, keep copyright notices intact on all copies of the work, and link to the license from copies of the work. Licensees cannot use technological measures to restrict access to the work by others.

* Excerpted from http://creativecommons.org/licenses/

More about the Creative Commons Licenses

License Your Work

Licensing a work with a Creative Commons license is as simple as selecting which of the six licenses best meets your goals, and then marking your work in some way so that others know that you have chosen to release the work under the terms of that license.

Use the CC Choose a License wizard to select the most appropriate license for your work.

The Licenses

Attribution
CC BY

This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. This is the most accommodating of licenses offered. Recommended for maximum dissemination and use of licensed materials.

View License Deed | View Legal Code

Attribution-ShareAlike
CC BY-SA

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit you and license their new creations under the identical terms. This license is often compared to “copyleft” free and open source software licenses. All new works based on yours will carry the same license, so any derivatives will also allow commercial use. This is the license used by Wikipedia, and is recommended for materials that would benefit from incorporating content from Wikipedia and similarly licensed projects.

View License Deed | View Legal Code

Attribution-NoDerivs
CC BY-ND

This license allows for redistribution, commercial and non-commercial, as long as it is passed along unchanged and in whole, with credit to you.

View License Deed | View Legal Code

Attribution-NonCommercial
CC BY-NC

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.

View License Deed | View Legal Code

Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike
CC BY-NC-SA

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, as long as they credit you and license their new creations under the identical terms.

View License Deed | View Legal Code

Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs
CC BY-NC-ND

This license is the most restrictive of our six main licenses, only allowing others to download your works and share them with others as long as they credit you, but they can’t change them in any way or use them commercially.

Things to Consider Before Licensing

Creative Commons Licenses

Creative Commons licenses give everyone from individual creators to large companies and institutions a simple, standardized way to grant copyright permissions to their creative work. 

Creative Commons licenses helps creators retain copyright and get credit for their work while allowing others to copy, distribute, and make some uses of their work — at least non-commercially. Creators can also choose to grant additional permissions for use of their work, for example, to allow derivative works or commercial use. If derivative works are allowed, users may be required to make the new work available under the same license terms (ShareAlike).

Creative Commons licenses require licensees to get permission to do any of the things with a work that the law reserves exclusively to a licensor and that the license does not expressly allow. Licensees must credit the licensor, keep copyright notices intact on all copies of the work, and link to the license from copies of the work. Licensees cannot use technological measures to restrict access to the work by others.

* Excerpted from http://creativecommons.org/licenses/

More about the Creative Commons Licenses

License Your Work

Licensing a work with a Creative Commons license is as simple as selecting which of the six licenses best meets your goals, and then marking your work in some way so that others know that you have chosen to release the work under the terms of that license.

Use the CC Choose a License wizard to select the most appropriate license for your work.

The Licenses

Attribution
CC BY

This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. This is the most accommodating of licenses offered. Recommended for maximum dissemination and use of licensed materials.

View License Deed | View Legal Code

Attribution-ShareAlike
CC BY-SA

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit you and license their new creations under the identical terms. This license is often compared to “copyleft” free and open source software licenses. All new works based on yours will carry the same license, so any derivatives will also allow commercial use. This is the license used by Wikipedia, and is recommended for materials that would benefit from incorporating content from Wikipedia and similarly licensed projects.

View License Deed | View Legal Code

Attribution-NoDerivs
CC BY-ND

This license allows for redistribution, commercial and non-commercial, as long as it is passed along unchanged and in whole, with credit to you.

View License Deed | View Legal Code

Attribution-NonCommercial
CC BY-NC

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.

View License Deed | View Legal Code

Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike
CC BY-NC-SA

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, as long as they credit you and license their new creations under the identical terms.

View License Deed | View Legal Code

Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs
CC BY-NC-ND

This license is the most restrictive of our six main licenses, only allowing others to download your works and share them with others as long as they credit you, but they can’t change them in any way or use them commercially.

Things to Consider Before Licensing