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HIS109: The Development of European Civilization 1350 - 1945

What Are Primary Sources

Handwritten letter by Cesare Borgia.

Letter by Cesare Borgia to Isabelle d'Este.

Primary sources provide first-hand testimony or direct evidence concerning a topic under investigation.

They are created by witnesses or recorders who experienced the events or conditions being documented.

From: "Primary sources at Yale"

What can be primary sources?

Think about what kinds of primary sources might be related to your topic:

letters

interviews

diaries

memoirs

oral histories

newspapers

reports

government documents

institutional records

music

pamphlets

maps

film

photographs

web sites

Nowadays even your ipod, blog or facebook can be primary sources, because they reflect the reality of the times.

Four ways to find primary sources

1. Start with what you already have: to uncover references to primary sources. Consult your:

  • class notes
  • course readings
  • bibliographies of your textbook, journal articles, or other secondary sources
  • historical encyclopedias

They can also help you identify relevant historical figures, authors, or keywords for searching library databases

2. Use the library catalogue to find books and other materials.

To find primary sources on your subject, combine keywords for different kinds of primary sources with keywords for your topic.

Examples:

reformation sources

world war 1914 correspondence

national socialism documents

 

documents

sources

texts

correspondence

diaries

pamphlets

personal narratives        

interviews

autobiography

speeches

early works to 1800

manuscripts

 

3.  Use reliable online text collections, such as the ones in this research guide.

4.  Use one of the specialized libraries at U of T, such as the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, or one of our special collections.