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Research Guides

Indigenous Studies

This guide is a starting point to find research in Indigenous Studies. It is meant primarily to assist students from the Centre for Indigenous Studies, but may be of use to students looking for Indigenous Research in general.

Citing Elders and Knowledge Keepers

MLA Style Citation

The MLA citation style was developed by Lorisia McLeod, who is from the James Smith Cree Nation.

Last name, First name., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. City/Community they live in if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. Date Month Year. 

Example: Cardinal, Delores., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. 4 April 2004. 


APA 7 Style Citation

Last name, First initial., Nation/Community. Location including Treaty Territory if applicable. Personal communication. Month Date, Year

Example: Cardinal, D., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6, Edmonton, Alberta. Personal communication. April 4, 2004.

Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.


Chicago Style Citation

The Chicago Style citation guidance was developed by Kwantlen Polytechnic University.

First Footnote: First Names Last Name (Elder), Nation, Topic/subject of communication if applicable, Personal communication, Territorial acknowledgement of where the information was shared, Month Date, Year.

Subsequent Footnote: Last Name, "Shortened title", page number.

Example: Delores Cardinal (Elder), Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Living in Treaty 6. Personal communication. Edmonton, Alberta. April 4, 2004.

Subsequent Footnote Example: Delores, "Living in Treaty 6", 35.

Bibliography: Last Name, First Names (Elder), Nation. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. Personal communication. Territorial acknowledgement of where the information was shared. Month Date, Year.

Example: Cardinal, Delores (Elder), Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Living in Treaty 6. Personal communication. Edmonton, Alberta, April 4, 2004.


OCAP Principles

The Report on the OCAP Principles, which stands for Ownership, Control, Access and Possession, is available below. From the First Nations Information Governance Centre, OCAP Principles are described as:

"The First Nations principles of OCAP® are a set of standards that establish how First Nations data should be collected, protected, used, or shared. They are the de facto standard for how to conduct research with First Nations.

Standing for ownership, control, access and possession, OCAP® asserts that First Nations have control over data collection processes in their communities, and that they own and control how this information can be used."

Books on Indigenous Research Methods