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BIO153H5: Diversity of Organisms


Citing in Science

Science Citation Style


For journal articles, list initials first for all authors, separated by a space (e.g., A. B. Opus, B. C. Hobbs). Do not use “and.” Titles of cited articles should be included (lowercase except for the first word and proper nouns), followed by a period (see examples below). Journal titles are in italics; volume numbers follow, in boldface. (If there is no volume number, use the publication year in its place.) Do not place a comma before the volume number or before any parentheses. You may provide the full inclusive pages of the article. If the publication is online only, use the article number (or citation number) instead of the page. Journal years are in parentheses: (1996). End each listing with a period. Do not use “ibid.” or ”op. cit.” (these cannot be linked online).


For whole books, the style for author or editor names is as above; for edited books, insert “Ed.,” or “Eds.,” before the title. Italicize the book title and use “title case” (see examples below). After the title, provide (in parentheses) the publisher name, edition number (if any), and year. If the book is part of a series, indicate this after the title (e.g., vol. 23 of Springer Series in Molecular Biology).


For chapters in edited books, the style is as above, except that “in” appears before the title, and the names of the editors appear after the title. The chapter title may be provided before the book title; enclose chapter titles in quotes and use initial caps. After the information in parentheses, provide the complete page number range (and/or chapter number) of the cited material.


For monographs, memos, or reports, the style for author or editor names is as above. The title should be in quotes and should have initial caps. After the title, provide (in parentheses) the report number (if applicable), publisher name, and year. If these are unavailable, or if the work is unpublished, please provide all information needed for a reader to locate the work; this may include a URL or a Web or FTP address. Monographs in series (such as AGU Monogr.) may be treated as journals.

For unpublished proceedings or symposia, supply the title of meeting, location, inclusive dates, and sponsoring organization. Also include the abstract number (if applicable). There is no need to supply the total page count.


For a thesis, name the school but not the degree; we do not use “dissertation,” “Ph.D.,” “Master’s,” or other specifics. Name the city if the university could be mistaken for another. It is optional to include the thesis title.


For research first published in Science First Release, online journals, and preprints available on the Internet, see the examples below. These are considered published work.





1. N. Tang, On the equilibrium partial pressures of nitric acid and ammonia in the atmosphere. Atmos. Environ. 14, 819-834 (1980).

2. W. R. Harvey, S. Nedergaard, Sodium-independent active transport of potassium in the isolated midgut of the Cecropia silkworm. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.51, 731-735 (1964).

3. N. H. Sleep, Stagnant lid convection and carbonate metasomatism of the deep continental lithosphere. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst10, Q11010 (2009). [online-only paper; use article number instead of page]

4. J. M. Dinning, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 42 (suppl. 1), 12 (1984). [journal with supplement noted]



1. M. Lister, “[Chapter title goes here]” in Fundamentals of Operating Systems (Springer, New York, ed. 3, 1984), pp. 7-11.

2. J. B. Carroll, Ed., Language, Thought and Reality, Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1956).

3. R. Davis, J. King, “[Chapter title goes here]” in Machine Intelligence, E. Acock, D. Michie, Eds. (Wiley, 1976), vol. 8, chap. 3. [use short form of publisher name, not “John Wiley & Sons”]

4. J. Sprung, Corals: A Quick Reference Guide (Oceanographic Series, Ricordea, Miami, FL, 1999). [for books in series, include the series title]

5. National Academy of Sciences, Principles and Procedures for Evaluating the Toxicity of Household Substances (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 1977). [organization as author and publisher]


Technical reports

1. G. B. Shaw, “Practical uses of litmus paper in Möbius strips” (Tech. Rep. CUCS-29-82, Columbia Univ., 1982).

2. F. Press, “A report on the computational needs for physics” (National Science Foundation, 1981). [unpublished or access by title]

3. “Assessment of the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of chemicals,” WHO Tech. Rep. Ser. No. 556 (1974). [no author]

4. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA), “White Paper on Bt plant-pesticide resistance management” (Publication 739-S-98-001, EPA, 1998; [the easiest access to this source is via the URL]


Conference proceedings (unpublished)

1. M. Konishi, paper presented at the 14th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, Anaheim, CA, 10 October 1984.



1. B. Smith, thesis, Georgetown University (1973).

2. R. White, “[Thesis title goes here],“ thesis, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL (1983). [Optional: The title of the thesis may be provided in quotes after the author name.]


Electronic publication before print

1. W. Jones, B. Smith, [Article title goes here]. Science 10.1126/science.1054678 (2005). [published in Science First Release; not yet published in print]

2. J. Moyron-Quiroz et al., Role of inducible bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) in respiratory immunity. Nat. Med. 10.1038/nm1091 (2004).

3. After print publication of a Science First Release paper (or any other paper that was initially published online), use the standard format for citing journal articles: W. Jones, B. Smith, [Article title goes here]. Science 311, 496–499 (2006).


Other online publication

1. E. M. Pietras, G. Cheng, A new TRADDition in intracellular antiviral signaling. Sci. Signal. 1, pe36 (2008). [Science Signaling]

2. R. K. Aziz, V. Nizet, Pathogen microevolution in high resolution. Sci. Transl. Med. 2, 16ps4 (2010). [Science Translational Medicine]

3. A. Clauset, S. Arbesman, D. B. Larremore, Systematic inequality and hierarchy in faculty hiring networks. Sci. Adv. 1, e1400005 (2015). [Science Advances]



1. A. Smette et al., (2001).

2. K. Abe et al., (2001) [if now published, omit the URL and provide only a standard reference]


Source: complete citation guide