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Research Guides

HIS196: Religion & Violence

What makes an article scholarly?

For your assignments, you will need scholarly resources to draw upon the theory and critical concepts that you 

  • Academic Article - Are there in-text citations and references listed in bibliography? 
  • Newspaper Article or Website Article - Does the article include interviews with experts and clearly identify facts? 
  • Do the authors have expertise?  (e.g., affiliation to an academic institution or recognized organization, academic credentials, extensive professional experience)
  • Do the authors examine the issue objectively?  Is a particular bias voiced by this author? Does the author discuss different perspectives on the topic? 
  • Use RADAR criteria (Rationale, Authority, Date, Accuracy, Relevance) to assess if the research is reliable and scholarly. 

Research Databases

A research database is essentially an electronic collection of published works. Depending on the database, it may contain records for journals, newspapers or magazine articles; books; documents; or audio visual content). Some databases will focus on specific disciplines while others are multidisciplinary (and therefore cover many different topics).

Research databases have tools for narrowing your search results by date, author, publications, subject and formats. These filters can help you narrow down your search results to the resources that will be the most relevant for your research project.

Explore this guide to learn more or contact library staff for help. You can send an email or book an online appointment with Kate, the Innis College Librarian or other UofT Librarians (subject librarians, request an online consultation, Ask a Librarian - online chat service). 

To find more:

Explore UofT Libraries (UTL) "Subjects A to Z" pages and choose a discipline, such as 'History-General' or 'History-by Topic.'

Explore the Historical Periodicals in the UTL History Guide.

ProQuest (scholarly journals, newspapers, magazines, ebooks & more)


ProQuest is a platform containing over 100 databases. ProQuest contains publications (i.e., newspapers, magazines, scholarly journals, eBook titles, dissertation and theses) in different subjects areas including film. Remember you might find content in a non-film related resource from your time period, (i.e., newspapers, business or tech magazines).


1) Use the Advanced Search Tool  

screen shot of ProQuest Advance Search box


2) Sort your Results 

  • Sort your results (Relevance, Date) 
    • Sort by Date: It may be useful to arrange the results chronologically (oldest first) in order to follow the entire production process of a particular film, from gossip about potential stars to reviews and box-office grosses.


3) Using ProQuest Search Filters

  • Narrow your search results using filters on left sidebar:
    • Source Type: Newspapers, Scholarly Journals, Book Chapter, eBook
    • Publication Title Toronto Star, The Washington Post‎, Canadian Journal of Disability Studies
    • Document Type: Feature, Front Page/Cover Story, Article 
    • Date: For Disability in the News assignment, restrict to last 6 months.


4) Mark relevant records

If you find interesting articles, be sure to . 

  • Go to the results page and click the check box to the left of the article title  
  • When you are ready to email the articles to yourself, scroll to the top of the results list and click on Email link (on right side)
  • Email the marked records to yourself 


Another option is to create a free ProQuest "My Research" account.

Newspapers Databases

Use these Newspaper Databases have filters to narrow down your search results: 

  • Date
  • Document Type: Feature, Front Page/Cover Story, Article 
  • Publication Title