Scoping studies differ from systematic reviews in several ways:
|Scoping review||Systematic review|
|Research question||Broadly defined||Highly focused|
|Inclusion/Exclusion criteria||Developed post hoc at study selection stage||Developed at protocol stage|
|Study selection||All study types||Defined study types|
|Data extraction||“Charts” data according to key issues, themes, etc.||Synthesizes & aggregates findings
HOWEVER both systematic reviews and scoping reviews require comprehensive and structured searches of the literature to maximize recall and decrease bias.
Guide to Knowledge Synthesis from Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Arksey, H., & O'Malley, L. (2005). Scoping studies: Towards a methodological framework. International Journal of Social Research Methodology: Theory and Practice, 8 (1), 19-32. doi:10.1080/1364557032000119616
|Narrative review||Evidence Synthesis|
|Search methods||not systematic, nor validated, nor peer reviewed||systematic, highly structured to minimize bias ; conducted much like other scientific studies|
|Inclusion/Exclusion criteria||Not explicitly stated||Included in protocol or developed post hoc|
|Bias||potential for authors to selectively include or exclude studies to support a position||attempts to minimize bias based on protocol, non-selective reporting of outcomes and transparent and reproducible search strategies|
|Replication & updating||Difficult since search methodology not reported in detail in methods section nor included in full in the appendices||Designed to be reproducible and facilitate updating
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